Properties And Functions Of The Living Cell


Living cells are the fundamental units of life, exhibiting a wide array of properties and functions that are essential for the survival and functioning of living organisms. Understanding the structure and functions of living cells is crucial in unraveling the mysteries of life itself. Let's delve into the intricacies of living cells to appreciate their complexity and significance.

Living cells are characterized by a high level of organization, with each component serving a specific function to ensure the survival and reproduction of the organism. The cellular organelles play distinct roles in maintaining the cell's metabolic activities. The nucleus, often referred to as the control center of the cell, contains the genetic material that governs the cell's functions and heredity. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell, where cellular respiration occurs to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes function collectively in protein synthesis, packaging, and waste disposal, respectively. The cell membrane, a semi-permeable barrier, regulates the entry and exit of substances through processes like diffusion, osmosis, and active transport. These mechanisms are vital for maintaining cellular homeostasis and ensuring the cell's survival.

Cellular respiration, a biochemical process that takes place in the mitochondria, is crucial for producing ATP, the energy currency of the cell. Through glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, cells break down glucose to generate ATP, fueling various cellular activities. In instances where oxygen is limited, anaerobic respiration provides an alternative pathway, producing energy without the need for oxygen.

Excretion is another essential process in living cells, involving the removal of waste products such as carbon dioxide, water, and ammonia. These byproducts are eliminated to maintain the cell's internal environment and prevent toxic buildup. Regulation of growth and development in cells is orchestrated by hormones, influencing processes like cell division, elongation, and differentiation.

Cells also exhibit various movements, with tropisms directing their response to external stimuli. Tropisms like phototropism and geotropism guide plant growth towards light and gravity, respectively. Microscopic examination reveals the different regions of growth and development, from cell division to maturation, illustrating the intricate processes involved in primary and secondary growth.

Cell reproduction mechanisms showcase the diversity of life, from binary fission in single-celled organisms like Paramecium to budding in yeast and Chlamydomonas. The process of meiosis during conjugation in organisms like Paramecium and Spirogyra demonstrates genetic variation and the formation of haploid gametes.

Investigating living cells unveils the marvels of life's building blocks, highlighting their dynamic nature and essential functions in sustaining life. Through exploring the properties and functions of living cells, we gain profound insights into the biological basis of existence.


  1. Analyze the processes involved in cell growth and development
  2. Identify the different organelles within a cell and their roles
  3. Discuss the various movements exhibited by cells
  4. Discuss the importance of cellular respiration in producing energy for the cell
  5. Explain the different modes of cell reproduction
  6. Understand the structure and function of living cells
  7. Describe the mechanisms of excretion in cells
  8. Explain the processes of diffusion, osmosis, and active transport in cells

Lesson Note

The cell is the fundamental structural, functional, and biological unit of all living organisms. It is often referred to as the "building block of life." Understanding the properties and functions of cells is essential to grasping many concepts in biology. This article will delve into various aspects of cell biology, including the processes involved in cell growth and development, organelles and their functions, cell movements, cellular respiration, modes of cell reproduction, mechanisms of excretion, and transport processes such as diffusion, osmosis, and active transport.

Lesson Evaluation

Congratulations on completing the lesson on Properties And Functions Of The Living Cell. Now that youve explored the key concepts and ideas, its time to put your knowledge to the test. This section offers a variety of practice questions designed to reinforce your understanding and help you gauge your grasp of the material.

You will encounter a mix of question types, including multiple-choice questions, short answer questions, and essay questions. Each question is thoughtfully crafted to assess different aspects of your knowledge and critical thinking skills.

Use this evaluation section as an opportunity to reinforce your understanding of the topic and to identify any areas where you may need additional study. Don't be discouraged by any challenges you encounter; instead, view them as opportunities for growth and improvement.

  1. What is the primary function of the mitochondria within a cell? A. Protein synthesis B. Energy production C. Waste elimination D. Cellular communication Answer: B. Energy production
  2. Which organelle is responsible for the synthesis of proteins within a cell? A. Mitochondria B. Golgi apparatus C. Endoplasmic reticulum D. Lysosome Answer: C. Endoplasmic reticulum
  3. Which structure is unique to plant cells and not found in animal cells? A. Chloroplast B. Mitochondria C. Nucleus D. Endoplasmic reticulum Answer: A. Chloroplast
  4. What is the main function of the nucleus within a cell? A. Energy production B. Waste elimination C. Cellular communication D. Genetic control Answer: D. Genetic control
  5. Which organelle is responsible for breaking down cellular waste and debris? A. Golgi apparatus B. Lysosome C. Endoplasmic reticulum D. Nucleus Answer: B. Lysosome
  6. Which organelle contains enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion? A. Mitochondria B. Golgi apparatus C. Lysosome D. Nucleus Answer: C. Lysosome
  7. Which cell organelle is known as the "powerhouse" of the cell? A. Golgi apparatus B. Lysosome C. Mitochondria D. Endoplasmic reticulum Answer: C. Mitochondria
  8. Which organelle is responsible for packaging and shipping proteins to different parts of the cell? A. Mitochondria B. Golgi apparatus C. Lysosome D. Endoplasmic reticulum Answer: B. Golgi apparatus
  9. Which organelle is responsible for maintaining the cell's shape and providing support? A. Nucleus B. Endoplasmic reticulum C. Cytoskeleton D. Golgi apparatus Answer: C. Cytoskeleton

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Past Questions

Wondering what past questions for this topic looks like? Here are a number of questions about Properties And Functions Of The Living Cell from previous years

Question 1 Report

Use the following processes to answer this question.
I-Ribs move upward and outward

II- Diaphragm relaxes

IIl-Volume of thorax increases

IV-Air is forced out of the lungs

 Which of the processes take place during inspiration?

Question 1 Report

During the movement of the fish from point A to target B, one of these parts is not involved

Question 1 Report

The following processes release carbondioxide into the atmosphere EXCEPT

Practice a number of Properties And Functions Of The Living Cell past questions