Organic Compounds


Welcome to the comprehensive course on Organic Compounds in Chemistry!

Organic compounds are the backbone of life, with carbon as their central element due to its unique tetravalency, allowing for the formation of complex chains of compounds through catenation. In this course, we will delve into the diverse world of organic compounds, starting with a detailed exploration of various classes.

Firstly, we will unravel the realm of aliphatic hydrocarbons, beginning with alkanes. Understanding the homologous series of alkanes in relation to their physical properties is crucial. We will also delve into substitution reactions and explore examples of halogenated products, elucidating the importance of isomerism, focusing on structural isomerism within a limited carbon atom range.

As we venture into the world of petroleum, we will dissect its composition and the process of fractional distillation, shedding light on the major products obtained. Furthermore, we will delve into cracking and reforming processes, essential for obtaining valuable products. We will also explore petrochemicals, the key starting materials of organic syntheses, and decipher the significance of quality petrol through octane numbers.

Moving on to alkenes, we will unravel structural and geometric isomerism intricacies. The course will emphasize additional and polymerization reactions, with a focus on essential products like polythene and synthetic rubber, highlighting their pivotal role in vulcanization processes.

Our exploration extends to alkynes, with a detailed look at ethyne, including its production from water action on carbides and essential properties. The aromatic hydrocarbon benzene will also be thoroughly examined, focusing on its structure, properties, and diverse applications.

Transitioning to alkanols, we will delineate the primary, secondary, and tertiary distinctions. The course will elucidate ethanol production through fermentation and from petroleum by-products, drawing examples from local sources like the production of gin from palm wine. The reactions of the OH group, including oxidation tests like the Lucas test, will be thoroughly explored.

Next, we will delve into alkanals and alkanones, deciphering the chemical tests that distinguish between these compounds. Alkanoic acids will be explored in detail, covering their chemical reactions such as neutralization and esterification, with examples like ethanedioic acid and benzene carboxylic acid.

Our course will also illuminate alkanoates, elucidating their formation from alkanoic acids and alkanols. We will uncover the significance of fats and oils as alkanoates, delving into saponification processes and distinguishing between soaps and detergents.

The journey continues with a deep dive into amines, specifically alkanamines, encompassing primary, secondary, and tertiary distinctions. We will study the classification of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, and polysaccharides, exploring their composition and diverse uses across various industries.

Furthermore, our exploration will extend to proteins, where we will analyze their primary structures, hydrolysis processes, and essential tests like Ninhydrin, Biuret, Millon's, and xanthoproteic tests. Natural and synthetic polymers will also be a focal point, guiding us through addition and condensation polymerization processes, illustrating their preparation methods, examples, and wide-ranging utilities in today's world.

This course aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of organic compounds, their structures, properties, and diverse applications, preparing you for a fascinating journey into the realm of carbon-based chemistry.


  1. Infer the Products of Hydrolysis and Dehydration of Carbohydrates
  2. Relate the Tetravalency of Carbon to Its Ability to Form Chains of Compound (Catenation)
  3. Identify the Natural Sources of Carbohydrates
  4. Classify Compounds According to Their Functional Groups
  5. Specify the Process Involved in Vulcanization
  6. Specify the Tests for Simple Sugars
  7. Relate the Name of a Compound to Its Structure
  8. Specify the Uses of Various Hydrocarbons
  9. Distinguish Each Class of Hydrocarbons by Their Properties
  10. Identify Crude Oil as a Complex Mixture of Hydrocarbons
  11. Compare the Various Classes of Carbohydrates
  12. Distinguish Between Natural and Synthetic Polymers
  13. Distinguish Between Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  14. Distinguish Between the Different Types of Isomerism
  15. Relate Structure/Functional Groups to Specific Properties
  16. Specify the Methods for the Production of Soap, Detergent, and Margarine
  17. Relate the Properties of Benzene to Its Structure
  18. Compare the Various Classes of Alkanols
  19. Determine the Uses of Carbohydrates
  20. Derive the Name of Organic Compounds from Their General Formulae
  21. Classify the Various Types of Hydrocarbons
  22. Differentiate Between Alkanals and Alkanones
  23. Relate Transformation Processes to Quality Improvement of the Fractions
  24. Determine the Processes Involved in Ethanol Production
  25. Distinguish Between Thermoplastics and Thermosetting Plastics
  26. Relate the Fractions of Hydrocarbons to Their Properties and Uses
  27. Specify the Methods and Products of Hydrolysis
  28. Specify Chemical Test for Terminal Alkynes
  29. Distinguish Between Detergent and Soap
  30. Differentiate Between Addition and Condensation Polymerization Processes
  31. Derive Various Isomeric Forms from a Given Formula
  32. Compare the Various Classes of Alkanamines
  33. Distinguish the Various Classes of Alkanols
  34. Derive Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula from Given Data
  35. Examine the Importance of Ethanol as an Alternative Energy Provider
  36. Specify the Various Tests for Proteins
  37. Compare the Various Types of Alkanoic Acids
  38. Identify Natural Sources of Alkanoates
  39. Distinguish Between Various Polymerization Processes
  40. Classify Natural and Commercial Polymers and Their Uses
  41. Identify the Basic Structure of Proteins

Lesson Note

Not Available

Lesson Evaluation

Congratulations on completing the lesson on Organic Compounds. Now that youve explored the key concepts and ideas, its time to put your knowledge to the test. This section offers a variety of practice questions designed to reinforce your understanding and help you gauge your grasp of the material.

You will encounter a mix of question types, including multiple-choice questions, short answer questions, and essay questions. Each question is thoughtfully crafted to assess different aspects of your knowledge and critical thinking skills.

Use this evaluation section as an opportunity to reinforce your understanding of the topic and to identify any areas where you may need additional study. Don't be discouraged by any challenges you encounter; instead, view them as opportunities for growth and improvement.

  1. What is the process involved in the production of soap from alkanoates? A. Saponification reaction B. Esterification reaction C. Cracking reaction D. Polymerization reaction Answer: A. Saponification reaction
  2. Which of the following is an example of an alkanol? A. Benzene B. Ethanol C. Ethyne D. Butane Answer: B. Ethanol
  3. What type of isomerism is exhibited by alkenes? A. Geometric isomerism B. Structural isomerism C. Chain isomerism D. Optical isomerism Answer: A. Geometric isomerism
  4. What distinguishes between primary, secondary, and tertiary alkanols? A. Oxidation test B. Lucas test C. Reduction test D. Esterification reaction Answer: B. Lucas test
  5. Which class of hydrocarbons is derived from the action of water on carbides? A. Alkanes B. Alkenes C. Alkynes D. Alkanamines Answer: C. Alkynes
  6. What is the distinguishing chemical test between alkanals and alkanones? A. Iodoform test B. Lucas test C. Schiff's test D. Benedict's test Answer: A. Iodoform test
  7. Which of the following is an example of a dicarboxylic acid? A. Ethanedioic acid B. Ethanoic acid C. Propanoic acid D. Benzene carboxylic acid Answer: A. Ethanedioic acid
  8. Which polymerization process is exemplified by the formation of polythene? A. Addition polymerization B. Condensation polymerization C. Vulcanization D. Hydrolysis Answer: A. Addition polymerization
  9. What is the structure of benzene? A. Linear B. Cyclic C. Branched D. Aromatic Answer: D. Aromatic

Recommended Books

Past Questions

Wondering what past questions for this topic looks like? Here are a number of questions about Organic Compounds from previous years

Question 1 Report

which of the following organic compounds has the lowest boiling point?

Question 1 Report

During the extraction of iron in the blast furnance, slag is produced using

Question 1 Report

Chlorine gas is commonly used in the production of which of the following industrial compounds?

Practice a number of Organic Compounds past questions