The New Imperialism And European Occupation Of Africa


In the late 19th century, European powers embarked on a period of aggressive expansion and colonization in Africa, known as the New Imperialism. This era was marked by a significant increase in European intervention and control over African territories, leading to far-reaching consequences for both the continent and its inhabitants.

One of the key aspects of the New Imperialism was the European Scramble for Africa, where European nations sought to carve up the African continent for their own economic and strategic interests. The competition for resources, markets, and geopolitical advantage drove European powers to rapidly expand their colonial empires in Africa.

The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 played a pivotal role in shaping the course of European colonization in Africa. During this conference, European powers met to establish ground rules for the partition of Africa, disregarding African sovereignty and interests. The arbitrary boundaries drawn during the conference ignored ethnic, cultural, and political considerations, leading to lasting repercussions for African nations.

The Occupation and Resistance faced by Africans during this period was a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. While European powers utilized military force and technological superiority to subjugate African societies, many Africans actively resisted colonial rule through various means, including armed revolts, diplomatic negotiations, and cultural preservation.

Overall, the New Imperialism and European Occupation of Africa were driven by a combination of economic interests, ideological motivations, and geopolitical ambitions. This period of history laid the foundation for enduring challenges faced by African nations, including political instability, economic dependency, and social upheaval.


  1. Examine the Causes of the Scramble
  2. Account for the Significance of the Berlin Conference
  3. Assess the Causes of the New Imperialism
  4. Examine African Resistance to the Occupation

Lesson Note

The late 19th century was marked by significant geopolitical changes across the globe, particularly in Africa. Known as the period of "New Imperialism," European powers drastically expanded their influence and control over the African continent. This era, often referred to as the Scramble for Africa, saw European countries rapidly occupying and colonizing African territories. The rush for African lands was driven by multiple factors, and it had profound and lasting impacts on the continent. This article will delve into the causes of the Scramble for Africa, the significance of the Berlin Conference, the reasons behind the New Imperialism, and the African resistance to European occupation.

Lesson Evaluation

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  1. What were some of the main reasons for the New Imperialism in Africa? A. Economic motives and the search for new markets B. Desire for humanitarian intervention only C. Social motives to spread education D. Religious motives for spreading Christianity Answer: A. Economic motives and the search for new markets
  2. What was the European Scramble for Africa primarily driven by? A. Cooperation among European nations B. Desire for territorial expansion and resources C. Respect for African sovereignty D. Lack of interest in African colonies Answer: B. Desire for territorial expansion and resources
  3. Which event formalized the rules for European colonization of Africa? A. Scramble for Africa Conference B. London Agreement C. Berlin Conference D. African Decolonization Summit Answer: C. Berlin Conference
  4. How did Africans mainly respond to European occupation of their lands? A. By welcoming European colonizers without any resistance B. By engaging in diplomatic negotiations to maintain independence C. By peacefully protesting against colonization D. By resisting through armed conflicts and rebellions Answer: D. By resisting through armed conflicts and rebellions

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Past Questions

Wondering what past questions for this topic looks like? Here are a number of questions about The New Imperialism And European Occupation Of Africa from previous years

Question 1 Report

Which conference, held in 1884-1885, laid the groundwork for the partition of Africa among European powers?

Practice a number of The New Imperialism And European Occupation Of Africa past questions