Environmental Physiology


Environmental Physiology in Animal Production

Environmental physiology plays a critical role in the overall performance and well-being of farm animals. Understanding how climatic factors such as temperature, relative humidity, and light impact growth, reproduction, milk production, and egg production is essential for successful animal husbandry practices. By delving into the effects of these changes on various aspects of animal physiology, we can effectively manage our livestock to ensure optimal health and productivity.

Types of Farm Animals

Farm animals encompass a diverse range of species including cattle, sheep, goats, poultry, pigs, rabbits, fish, and more. Each type of animal has unique characteristics and requirements that must be taken into consideration when designing management practices. By classifying these animals according to their species and understanding the different parts and organs within their bodies, we can tailor specific care strategies to meet their physiological needs.

Reproductive Systems and Processes

Reproduction is a fundamental aspect of animal production, influencing the sustainability and genetic diversity of livestock populations. The reproductive systems of farm animals are intricate and involve a series of processes such as oestrus cycle, mating, gestation, parturition, and lactation. Hormones play a pivotal role in regulating these reproductive functions, orchestrating the timing of ovulation and ensuring successful breeding outcomes.

Significance of Organs and Systems

The organs and systems within farm animals serve specific functions that are crucial for their overall health and performance. From the digestive system that processes nutrients to the circulatory system that transports essential substances throughout the body, each organ plays a vital role in maintaining homeostasis. Understanding how these systems interact and support one another is key to promoting animal welfare and productivity.

Environmental Factors and Animal Productivity

Changes in climatic factors can have profound effects on animal productivity, influencing growth rates, reproductive efficiency, milk production, and egg quality. Variations in temperature, humidity, and light exposure can impact physiological processes within farm animals, leading to fluctuations in metabolic rates, hormonal balance, and nutrient utilization. By considering these environmental factors in animal production practices, we can implement strategies to mitigate potential stressors and optimize performance.

Overall, environmental physiology plays a pivotal role in shaping the success of animal production systems. By understanding how climatic factors and environmental conditions influence the growth, reproduction, and overall well-being of farm animals, we can enhance our management practices and promote sustainable livestock production.


  1. Understand the effects of changes in climatic factors on growth, reproduction, milk production, and egg production
  2. Explain the significance of organs and systems in farm animals
  3. Illustrate the processes of reproduction in farm animals
  4. Describe the reproductive systems of farm animals
  5. Discuss the role of hormones in the reproduction of farm animals
  6. Identify the types of farm animals and their classification

Lesson Note

Environmental physiology is the branch of biological science that studies how environmental factors affect the physiological functions of organisms such as farm animals. Understanding these effects is crucial for optimizing animal welfare and productivity in agricultural settings.

Lesson Evaluation

Congratulations on completing the lesson on Environmental Physiology. Now that youve explored the key concepts and ideas, its time to put your knowledge to the test. This section offers a variety of practice questions designed to reinforce your understanding and help you gauge your grasp of the material.

You will encounter a mix of question types, including multiple-choice questions, short answer questions, and essay questions. Each question is thoughtfully crafted to assess different aspects of your knowledge and critical thinking skills.

Use this evaluation section as an opportunity to reinforce your understanding of the topic and to identify any areas where you may need additional study. Don't be discouraged by any challenges you encounter; instead, view them as opportunities for growth and improvement.

  1. What is the primary focus of Environmental Physiology in animal production? A. Effects of changes in climatic factors B. Effects of changes in market demand C. Effects of changes in government policies D. Effects of changes in technology Answer: A. Effects of changes in climatic factors
  2. What are some climatic factors that can impact animal production? A. Rainfall and wind speed B. Soil fertility and crop yield C. Temperature, humidity, and light D. Altitude and animal breed Answer: C. Temperature, humidity, and light
  3. How do changes in temperature affect animal growth? A. Increase in temperature slows down growth B. Decrease in temperature accelerates growth C. Extreme temperatures have no impact on growth D. Optimal temperature range promotes growth Answer: D. Optimal temperature range promotes growth
  4. Which of the following is NOT a reproductive system of farm animals? A. Digestive system B. Circulatory system C. Reproductive system D. Respiratory system Answer: A. Digestive system
  5. What is the role of hormones in the reproduction of farm animals? A. Hormones have no role in animal reproduction B. Hormones regulate the growth of farm animals C. Hormones control the reproductive processes D. Hormones impact milk production only Answer: C. Hormones control the reproductive processes
  6. How do changes in relative humidity affect egg production in poultry? A. Increase in humidity boosts egg production B. Decrease in humidity boosts egg production C. Humidity has no impact on egg production D. Extreme humidity hinders egg production Answer: D. Extreme humidity hinders egg production
  7. What is the gestation period of cattle on average? A. 1 month B. 4 months C. 9 months D. 12 months Answer: C. 9 months
  8. Why is understanding the effects of climatic factors important in animal production? A. To predict market trends B. To ensure a stable environment for animals C. To increase government regulations D. To impact technological advancements Answer: B. To ensure a stable environment for animals
  9. What is the significance of the mammary glands in farm animals? A. Regulation of body temperature B. Reproductive hormone production C. Milk production and lactation D. Digestion of food Answer: C. Milk production and lactation

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Past Questions

Wondering what past questions for this topic looks like? Here are a number of questions about Environmental Physiology from previous years

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Practice a number of Environmental Physiology past questions