Internal Structure Of A Flowering Plant


Welcome to the course on the Internal Structure of a Flowering Plant. This topic delves into the intricate organization of the major plant organs - root, stem, and leaf - highlighting their internal structures and functions.

Root: The root system of a plant plays a crucial role in anchoring the plant, absorbing water and minerals from the soil, and storing reserve food materials. When we examine a transverse section of a root, we observe distinct regions such as the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular cylinder. The epidermis is the outermost layer responsible for absorption, while the cortex provides support and storage. The endodermis surrounds the vascular cylinder, regulating the movement of water and minerals into the plant body. The vascular cylinder consists of xylem and phloem tissues responsible for water and nutrient transport, respectively.

Stem: The stem serves as a central axis supporting leaves, flowers, and fruits, in addition to transporting water, minerals, and organic compounds. A cross-section of a stem reveals an epidermis, cortex, vascular bundles, and pith. The epidermis acts as a protective barrier, preventing water loss and pathogen entry. The cortex provides structural support and storage. Vascular bundles, composed of xylem and phloem tissues, facilitate nutrient transport. The pith, located at the center, offers additional support and storage.

Leaf: Leaves are the primary photosynthetic organs of a plant, responsible for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy. Examining a leaf's cross-section, we observe the upper and lower epidermis, mesophyll, and vascular bundles. The upper epidermis contains a waxy cuticle that reduces water loss. Mesophyll, consisting of palisade and spongy layers, performs photosynthesis. Vascular bundles, comprising xylem and phloem, ensure the transport of water, minerals, and sugars throughout the leaf.

Supporting tissues like collenchyma and sclerenchyma provide structural support to plant organs, while xylem and phloem fibers facilitate nutrient conduction. These tissues are strategically distributed in roots, stems, and leaves to uphold plant structures and maintain physiological functions.

By understanding the internal structure of a flowering plant, we gain insights into how these organs are adapted to perform their specific functions efficiently, contributing to the overall growth and development of the plant.

Next, we will shift our focus to the intricate arrangement of internal organs in mammals, exploring the digestive, reproductive, and excretory systems in detail.


  1. Identify and describe supporting tissues in plants (collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem and phloem fibres)
  2. Describe the distribution of supporting tissues in roots, stem, and leaf
  3. Identify the transverse sections of root, stem, and leaf
  4. Examine the arrangement of mammalian internal organs
  5. Relate the structure of root, stem, and leaf to their functions
  6. Describe the appearance and position of the digestive, reproductive, and excretory organs

Lesson Note

Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, possess complex internal structures that ensure their survival, growth, and reproduction. Understanding these structures is crucial for appreciating how plants function and adapt to their environments. This overview aims to delve into the various supporting tissues and the distribution of these tissues in roots, stems, and leaves, as well as examine the relationship between structure and function in different parts of the plant.

Lesson Evaluation

Congratulations on completing the lesson on Internal Structure Of A Flowering Plant. Now that youve explored the key concepts and ideas, its time to put your knowledge to the test. This section offers a variety of practice questions designed to reinforce your understanding and help you gauge your grasp of the material.

You will encounter a mix of question types, including multiple-choice questions, short answer questions, and essay questions. Each question is thoughtfully crafted to assess different aspects of your knowledge and critical thinking skills.

Use this evaluation section as an opportunity to reinforce your understanding of the topic and to identify any areas where you may need additional study. Don't be discouraged by any challenges you encounter; instead, view them as opportunities for growth and improvement.

  1. What are the following questions? What is the primary function of the root system in plants? A. Photosynthesis B. Support C. Absorption of water and minerals D. Reproduction Answer: C. Absorption of water and minerals
  2. Which of the following tissues is responsible for providing mechanical support to the plant stem? A. Phloem B. Xylem C. Collenchyma D. Sclerenchyma Answer: D. Sclerenchyma
  3. Which of the following plant organs is responsible for gas exchange and photosynthesis? A. Root B. Stem C. Leaf D. Flower Answer: C. Leaf
  4. Which supporting tissue in plants is responsible for conducting water and dissolved minerals upwards from the roots? A. Phloem B. Collenchyma C. Sclerenchyma D. Xylem Answer: D. Xylem
  5. In which plant organ would you find collenchyma tissue providing flexible support? A. Root B. Stem C. Leaf D. Flower Answer: B. Stem
  6. Which of the following is NOT a function of the stem in plants? A. Transport of water and nutrients B. Support C. Photosynthesis D. Holding leaves, flowers, and fruits Answer: C. Photosynthesis
  7. The phloem tissue in plants is responsible for: A. Conducting water and dissolved minerals B. Providing mechanical support C. Translocation of organic compounds D. Providing flexibility Answer: C. Translocation of organic compounds
  8. The primary function of the root hair cells is to: A. Anchor the plant in the soil B. Absorb water and minerals C. Support the stem D. Conduct photosynthesis Answer: B. Absorb water and minerals
  9. Which of the following supporting tissues in plants is dead at maturity? A. Collenchyma B. Sclerenchyma C. Phloem D. Xylem Answer: B. Sclerenchyma

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Past Questions

Wondering what past questions for this topic looks like? Here are a number of questions about Internal Structure Of A Flowering Plant from previous years

Question 1 Report

The fruit that has the illustrated sections is a

Question 1 Report

petaloid sepals serve the function of?

Question 1 Report

The following attract insects to flowers for pollination EXCEPT

Practice a number of Internal Structure Of A Flowering Plant past questions