Evolution Among The Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantar and Animalia


Evolution among the Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia is a fascinating journey that demonstrates the gradual transition from simple to complex organisms over millions of years. By analyzing the external features and characteristics of these diverse groups of organisms, we can observe how life forms have evolved and adapted to different environments.

Monera (Prokaryotes) such as bacteria and blue-green algae represent some of the earliest forms of life on Earth. These organisms lack a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, existing as single-celled entities with simple structures. Despite their simplicity, Monera exhibit remarkable metabolic diversity and play crucial roles in biogeochemical cycles.

Protista encompass a wide range of single-celled eukaryotic organisms, including protozoans like amoeba, paramecium, and protophyta such as euglena. These organisms exhibit a higher level of complexity compared to Monera, possessing membrane-bound organelles like mitochondria and a nucleus. Protists showcase the evolutionary leap towards cellular specialization and increased structural complexity.

Fungi, comprising organisms like mushrooms and rhizopus, represent a diverse group of eukaryotic organisms that exhibit unique characteristics such as chitin-rich cell walls and heterotrophic nutrition. Fungi play vital roles in nutrient recycling and symbiotic relationships with other organisms, showcasing the evolutionary adaptation towards diverse ecological niches.

Plantae (Plants) showcase a major evolutionary milestone with the colonization of land by photosynthetic organisms. From thallophyta like spirogyra to angiosperms like maize, plants have evolved complex structures like roots, stems, and leaves to thrive in terrestrial environments. The evolution of vascular tissues and reproductive adaptations has enabled plants to dominate landscapes and form the foundation of terrestrial ecosystems.

Animalia (Animals) represent the pinnacle of multicellular evolution, with diverse phyla such as coelenterates, platyhelminthes, annelids, arthropods, mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. From simple invertebrates to complex vertebrates, animals showcase a wide array of adaptations for locomotion, feeding, reproduction, and survival in various habitats.

By tracing the evolutionary history of these organisms, we can observe how life has diversified and adapted to a range of environmental challenges. The transition from simple prokaryotic cells to complex multicellular organisms highlights the incredible journey of evolution that has shaped the biodiversity we see today.


  1. Apply the Knowledge to Demonstrate Increase in Structural Complexity
  2. Analyse External Features and Characteristics of the Listed Organisms
  3. Trace the Evolution of the Listed Plants
  4. Demonstrate Gradual Transition from Life in Water to Life on Land using the Knowledge of Life Histories
  5. Trace the Stages in the Life Histories of the Listed Organisms

Lesson Note

Evolution is a fundamental concept in biology that explains the diversity of life on Earth. The process of evolution has led to the emergence of various life forms, ranging from simple single-celled organisms to complex multicellular beings. The Kingdoms Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia represent significant milestones in the evolutionary history of life. These kingdoms exemplify the increase in structural complexity and adaptation to various environments, from aquatic habitats to terrestrial ecosystems.

Lesson Evaluation

Congratulations on completing the lesson on Evolution Among The Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantar and Animalia. Now that youve explored the key concepts and ideas, its time to put your knowledge to the test. This section offers a variety of practice questions designed to reinforce your understanding and help you gauge your grasp of the material.

You will encounter a mix of question types, including multiple-choice questions, short answer questions, and essay questions. Each question is thoughtfully crafted to assess different aspects of your knowledge and critical thinking skills.

Use this evaluation section as an opportunity to reinforce your understanding of the topic and to identify any areas where you may need additional study. Don't be discouraged by any challenges you encounter; instead, view them as opportunities for growth and improvement.

  1. Which of the following groups of organisms shows a gradual transition from life in water to life on land? A. Monera B. Protista C. Fungi D. Plantae Answer: D. Plantae
  2. Which group of organisms is characterized by having prokaryotic cells? A. Fungi B. Plantae C. Animalia D. Monera Answer: D. Monera
  3. Which kingdom includes organisms like Amoeba, Euglena, and Paramecium? A. Animalia B. Plantae C. Protista D. Fungi Answer: C. Protista
  4. Which of the following is a characteristic of fungi? A. Multicellular organisms B. Photosynthetic C. Have chitin in cell walls D. Have chlorophyll for food production Answer: C. Have chitin in cell walls
  5. What group of organisms includes mushrooms and Rhizopus? A. Protista B. Plantae C. Fungi D. Animalia Answer: C. Fungi
  6. Which kingdom includes organisms with cellulose cell walls and chlorophyll for photosynthesis? A. Protista B. Animalia C. Plantae D. Monera Answer: C. Plantae
  7. In which kingdom do organisms show a high level of structural complexity? A. Monera B. Protista C. Plantae D. Animalia Answer: D. Animalia
  8. Which group of organisms includes cycads and conifers? A. Protista B. Plantae C. Fungi D. Animalia Answer: B. Plantae
  9. Earthworms belong to which phylum? A. Annelida B. Mollusca C. Nematoda D. Arthropoda Answer: A. Annelida
  10. Which group of organisms includes Hydra and jellyfish? A. Mollusca B. Coelenterate C. Nematoda D. Annelida Answer: B. Coelenterate

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Past Questions

Wondering what past questions for this topic looks like? Here are a number of questions about Evolution Among The Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantar and Animalia from previous years

Question 1 Report

(a)  State two roles each of the following compounds in respiration:
(i)   glucose;
(ii)  oxygen.                                              
(b) List two types of cellular respiration                                 
(c) Name the structures of gaseous exchange in the following organisms:


S/N ORGANISM                                        STRUCTURE OF GASEOUS EXCHANGE
1 Ameoba  
2 Tilapia  
3 Adult Toad  
4 Grasshopper  


(d) Make a diagram, 6 cm to 8 cm long of an open stoma in a leaf and label fully.  

Question 1 Report

Metamorphosis is a biological process that involves

Question 1 Report

The following are courtship behaviors in animals EXCEPT

Practice a number of Evolution Among The Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantar and Animalia past questions