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**Question 1**
**Report**

The image which cannot be formed on a screen is said to be

**Answer Details**

The image which cannot be formed on a screen is said to be a virtual image. A virtual image is an image that appears to be behind the mirror or lens and cannot be projected onto a screen. It is formed by the apparent intersection of the light rays that are reflected or refracted by a mirror or lens. The rays of light do not actually converge to a point but only appear to do so. Virtual images are always erect (upright) and are usually smaller than the object. Examples of objects that produce virtual images include mirrors, lenses, and some optical instruments such as microscopes and telescopes.

**Question 2**
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Which of the following condition is necessary for the occurrence of total internal reflection of light?

**Answer Details**

Total internal reflection occurs when light travels from a denser medium to a less dense medium, such as from water to air or from glass to air, and the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle. The critical angle is the angle of incidence that produces an angle of refraction of 90 degrees. Therefore, the correct option is: "the angle of incidence must be greater than the critical angle".

**Question 3**
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A lamp is rated 240V 60W, calculate the resistance of its filament

**Answer Details**

To calculate the resistance of the filament in a lamp rated 240V and 60W, we can use Ohm's Law and the formula for electrical power. Ohm's Law states that resistance (R) is equal to voltage (V) divided by current (I), or R = V/I. The formula for electrical power (P) is given by P = IV, where I is the current in amperes. First, we can use the formula for electrical power to find the current in the circuit. We know that the lamp is rated 60W and 240V, so we can write: P = IV 60W = 240V x I I = 60W / 240V I = 0.25A Next, we can use Ohm's Law to find the resistance of the filament: R = V/I R = 240V / 0.25A R = 960Ω Therefore, the resistance of the filament in the lamp is 960Ω. The correct answer is (iii) 960Ω.

**Question 4**
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A radioactive element has a decay constant of 0.077s^{-1}, calculate its half life

**Answer Details**

The decay constant (λ) of a radioactive element is defined as the probability of decay of an individual nucleus per unit time. It can be mathematically shown that the number of nuclei (N) of a radioactive element remaining after time (t) is given by: N = N_{0} e^{-λt} where N_{0} is the initial number of nuclei. The half-life of a radioactive element is the time taken for half of the radioactive nuclei to decay. Therefore, when N = 1/2 N_{0}, we can rearrange the above equation to obtain the half-life (t_{1/2}): t_{1/2} = ln2/λ Substituting the given value of the decay constant, we get: t_{1/2} = ln2/0.077 s^{-1} ≈ 9.0 s Therefore, the half-life of the radioactive element is approximately 9.0 s. Answer: 9.0s

**Question 5**
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A platinum resistance thermometer has a resistance 4\(\Omega\) at 0oC and 10\(\Omega\) at 100oC. Assuming the resistance changes uniformly with temperature. Calculate the resistance of the thermometer when the temperature is 45oC.

**Answer Details**

The resistance of a platinum resistance thermometer changes uniformly with temperature. Let's use the formula for the resistance-temperature relationship of a platinum resistance thermometer: R = R₀(1 + αT) Where R is the resistance at a given temperature T, R₀ is the resistance at 0°C (4Ω in this case), and α is the temperature coefficient of resistance of platinum. We can find α by using the resistance values at two different temperatures, say 0°C and 100°C: α = (R₁ - R₀) / (R₀ × ΔT) Where ΔT is the temperature difference between the two resistance values (100°C - 0°C = 100°C), and R₁ is the resistance at the higher temperature (10Ω in this case). α = (10Ω - 4Ω) / (4Ω × 100°C) = 0.015Ω/°C Now we can use the formula to find the resistance at 45°C: R = R₀(1 + αT) = 4Ω(1 + 0.015Ω/°C × 45°C) ≈ 6.7Ω Therefore, the answer is 6.7Ω.

**Question 6**
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A converging lens has a focal length of 5cm. Determine its power

**Answer Details**

Power is defined as the reciprocal of the focal length of a lens, expressed in meters and denoted by the unit dioptre (D). To convert from centimeters to meters, we divide by 100. Thus, the power of the lens is: P = 1/f = 1/0.05m = 20 D Therefore, the answer is +20.0.

**Question 7**
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The direction of induced current in a straight wire placed in magnetic field is determined by using?

**Answer Details**

The direction of the induced current in a straight wire placed in a magnetic field is determined by Lenz's law. Lenz's law states that the direction of the induced current in a conductor is such that it opposes the change in the magnetic flux that produced it. When a wire is placed in a magnetic field and the magnetic field is changing, an electromotive force (emf) is induced in the wire. This emf causes a current to flow in the wire, which creates its own magnetic field. According to Lenz's law, the direction of this induced current is such that it opposes the change in the magnetic flux that produced it. To determine the direction of the induced current in a straight wire placed in a magnetic field, we use Lenz's law along with the right-hand rule. The right-hand rule states that if we hold our right hand with our thumb pointing in the direction of the magnetic field and our fingers curled in the direction of the motion of the conductor, then the direction of the induced current can be determined by the direction in which the fingers of the right hand point. In summary, Lenz's law is used to determine the direction of the induced current in a straight wire placed in a magnetic field. The right-hand rule is used in conjunction with Lenz's law to determine the direction of the induced current by using the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of motion of the conductor.

**Question 8**
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Nuclear fission is preferred to nuclear fusion in the generation of energy because?

**Question 9**
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A wave of weight length 0.30m travels 900m in 3.0s, calculate its frequency

**Answer Details**

The formula for the wave speed is given by: wave speed = frequency x wavelength We know that the wavelength of the wave is 0.30m, and it travels a distance of 900m in 3.0s. Therefore, the wave speed can be calculated as: wave speed = distance/time = 900m/3.0s = 300m/s We can then rearrange the formula to solve for the frequency: frequency = wave speed / wavelength Substituting the given values: frequency = 300m/s / 0.30m = 1000 Hz Therefore, the frequency of the wave is 1000 Hz. Answer: 3) 1000Hz

**Question 10**
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A force acts on a body for 0.5s changing its momentum from 16.0kg ms^{-1} to 21.0kgms^{-1}, calculate the magnitude of the force

**Answer Details**

The magnitude of the force F can be calculated using the formula: F = Δp/Δt where Δp is the change in momentum and Δt is the time taken for the change. In this case, Δp = final momentum - initial momentum = 21.0 kg ms^-1 - 16.0 kg ms^-1 = 5.0 kg ms^-1 Δt = 0.5 s Substituting these values into the formula: F = Δp/Δt = 5.0 kg ms^-1 / 0.5 s = 10.0 N Therefore, the magnitude of the force is 10.0 N. Answer: 10.0N

**Question 11**
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A moving object is said to have a uniform acceleration if its

**Answer Details**

A moving object is said to have a uniform acceleration if its velocity increases by equal amount in equal time intervals. Uniform acceleration refers to a constant rate of change in velocity over time. This means that for every unit of time that passes, the velocity of the object changes by the same amount. For example, if an object has a uniform acceleration of 5 meters per second squared, its velocity will increase by 5 meters per second every second. This is also known as a constant acceleration, as opposed to a variable acceleration where the rate of change in velocity is not constant.

**Question 12**
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An object is placed on the principal axis and at the centre of curvature of a concave mirror, the image of the image formed by the mirror is

**Answer Details**

When an object is placed at the center of curvature of a concave mirror, its image will be formed at the center of curvature itself. In this case, the image formed by the mirror will be real and inverted. Therefore, the correct answer is real and inverted.

**Question 13**
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Which of the following pairs of rays shows the widest separation in the spectrum of white light?

**Question 14**
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The tendency of a body to remain at least when a force is supplied to it is called

**Answer Details**

The tendency of a body to remain at rest or in a state of uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force is called inertia. In simpler terms, it means that a stationary object will stay at rest, and a moving object will continue to move in a straight line unless a force is applied to it. Therefore, the correct option is "inertia." - Impulse is the change in momentum resulting from a force applied to an object for a specific amount of time. - Momentum is the product of an object's mass and velocity, and it describes how difficult it is to stop the object. - Friction is a force that opposes motion between two surfaces in contact.

**Question 15**
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a metal rod of length 100cm is heated through 100^{o}C, calculate the change in length of the rod [linear expansivity of the material of the rod is 3 x 10^{-6}K^{-1}]

**Answer Details**

The change in length of a material can be determined using the formula: ΔL = LαΔT where ΔL is the change in length, L is the original length of the material, α is the coefficient of linear expansion of the material, and ΔT is the change in temperature. In this case, the length of the rod is 100cm, the coefficient of linear expansion is 3 x 10^-6 K^-1, and the change in temperature is 100oC. Substituting these values into the formula, we have: ΔL = (100cm)(3 x 10^-6 K^-1)(100oC) ΔL = 0.3cm or 3mm Therefore, the change in length of the rod is 3mm. The answer is (B) 3mm.

**Question 16**
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One difference between a reactance and a resistance in an alternating current circuit is

**Answer Details**

In an alternating current circuit, resistance and reactance are two important properties that determine the flow of current. Resistance is a property that resists the flow of current in a circuit and dissipates energy in the form of heat. On the other hand, reactance is a property that opposes the flow of current due to the presence of capacitance or inductance in the circuit. One main difference between resistance and reactance is that energy is dissipated in a resistance, while energy is not dissipated in a reactance. In a resistance, the energy of the current is converted into heat, and some of the electrical energy is lost in the form of heat. In contrast, a reactance stores energy in the form of an electric or magnetic field and releases it back into the circuit when the polarity of the current changes. Therefore, a reactance does not dissipate energy but stores and releases it. Another difference is that the current in a reactance can be lower than in a resistance, depending on the frequency of the alternating current and the type of reactance (capacitive or inductive). In a capacitive reactance, the current leads the voltage, while in an inductive reactance, the current lags the voltage. This means that the reactance can cause the current to be out of phase with the voltage, resulting in a lower net current flowing through the circuit. In summary, resistance dissipates energy in the form of heat while reactance stores and releases energy. The current in a reactance can be lower than in a resistance depending on the frequency of the alternating current and the type of reactance.

**Question 17**
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The volume of a given mass of an ideal gas at 327k and 9.52 x 10^{4} Pa is 40cm^{3}. calculate the volume of the gas at 273k and 1.034 x 10^{5}Pa.

**Question 18**
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When the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is doubled at constant temperature, the volume of the gas is

**Answer Details**

According to Boyle's law, when the temperature of a fixed mass of gas is constant, the pressure and volume of the gas are inversely proportional. Therefore, if the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is doubled at constant temperature, the volume of the gas must be halved to maintain a constant temperature. This is because the gas molecules are forced to occupy a smaller volume due to the increased pressure. Therefore, the correct option is: - halved

**Question 19**
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Which of the following statements is true of ultra violet radiations? It

**Answer Details**

Ultra violet radiation is an electromagnetic wave. Electromagnetic waves include radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays. These waves have different frequencies and wavelengths, with ultraviolet radiation having a higher frequency and shorter wavelength than visible light. Ultra violet radiation is capable of causing sunburns because it has enough energy to break the bonds of molecules in our skin, causing damage to our cells. This can lead to skin cancer and other health problems. Therefore, the statement that is true about ultraviolet radiation is that it is an electromagnetic wave. The correct answer is.

**Question 20**
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Which of the following statement about force is correct ?

**Question 21**
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A tuber of cassava can be processed into powder. This explains the face that

**Question 22**
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A converging lens produces an image four times as large as an object placed 25cm from the lens. Calculate its focal length

**Question 23**
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The diagram above shows the resultant electric field pattern due to two electric point charges P and S. Which of the following statements is correct?

**Question 24**
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Which of the following instruments gives a pure note when sounded?

**Answer Details**

A pure note is a sound wave of a single frequency or pitch without any harmonics. The instrument that can produce a pure note when sounded is a tuning fork. A tuning fork is a small metal object with two tines that vibrate when struck against a surface. The vibration of the tines creates a pure tone with a specific frequency, which is determined by the size, shape, and material of the tuning fork. This pure tone makes a tuning fork useful in tuning musical instruments or testing the frequency response of audio equipment.

**Question 25**
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Which of the following statements about an electromagnet is correct?

**Question 26**
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Which of the following statement about latent heat of vaporization is correct? It

**Question 27**
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The speed of sound in air is is directly proportional to

**Question 28**
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The period of an oscillatory motion is defined as the

**Answer Details**

The period of an oscillatory motion is defined as the time taken to complete one oscillation. This means that if an object oscillates, the period is the time it takes to complete one cycle of its motion. For example, if a pendulum swings back and forth, the period is the time it takes to go from one side to the other and back again. The period is an important quantity in oscillatory motion because it can be used to determine the frequency of the motion, which is the number of oscillations per unit time.

**Question 29**
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Which of the following factors does not affect the the electric resistance of a wire?

**Answer Details**

The factor that does not affect the electric resistance of a wire is "mass". Mass is not a factor that determines the resistance of a wire. The resistance of a wire is dependent on its length, cross-sectional area, temperature, and the type of material it is made of. The length of a wire is directly proportional to its resistance; the longer the wire, the higher the resistance. The cross-sectional area of a wire is inversely proportional to its resistance; the larger the area, the lower the resistance. The temperature of a wire affects its resistance because resistance increases with temperature for most materials. Finally, different materials have different resistance properties, and that affects the resistance of the wire.

**Question 30**
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The bar magnet illustrated in the diagram above picks up an unmagnetised steel nail X. In turn, X picks up a similar nail Y and so on. The nail are said to be magnetised by

**Answer Details**

The nail X is picked up by the bar magnet because of the magnetic field produced by the magnet. When nail X comes into contact with nail Y, it induces a temporary magnetism in nail Y due to the magnetic field of nail X. This temporary magnetism in nail Y allows it to attract another similar nail Z, and the process continues. The process by which nail X magnetizes nail Y is called "induction." Induction is the process by which a magnetic field induces a magnetic field in a nearby object without physical contact. In this case, the magnetic field of nail X induces a temporary magnetic field in nail Y, making it temporarily magnetized. Therefore, the nails are magnetized by induction. The correct answer is.

**Question 31**
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A positively charged glass rod is placed by near the cap of a positively charge electroscope. The divergence of the leaf is observed to

**Answer Details**

When a positively charged glass rod is placed near the cap of a positively charged electroscope, it will repel the positive charges in the electroscope, causing the charges to move away from the cap and towards the leaves. As a result, the leaves will experience a repulsive force and will diverge, indicating that the electroscope is charged. If the glass rod is brought closer to the cap, the repulsive force will become stronger, causing the leaves to diverge further. Therefore, the divergence of the leaves will increase. So the correct answer is "increase".

**Question 32**
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The mass on a loaded spiral spring oscillates vertically between two extreme positions P and R equidistant from the equilibrium position Q. Which of the following statements about the system is not correct

**Question 33**
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The heat capacity of a calorimeter is the amount of energy required to

**Answer Details**

The heat capacity of a calorimeter is the amount of energy required to change the temperature of the calorimeter itself. Specifically, it is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of the calorimeter by 1 Kelvin (or 1 degree Celsius). A calorimeter is a device used to measure the heat absorbed or released during a chemical or physical change. To do this, the calorimeter must be able to measure the change in temperature of the substances inside it. However, the calorimeter itself can also absorb or release heat during the process. The heat capacity of the calorimeter takes this into account by telling us how much energy is needed to change its own temperature. So, the correct answer is (c) change the temperature of the calorimeter.

**Question 34**
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Which of the following statements is not true of the isotopes of an element? They

**Answer Details**

The statement that is not true of the isotopes of an element is "have the same mass number". Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number (same number of protons in the nucleus), but a different mass number (different number of neutrons in the nucleus). Therefore, isotopes have the same chemical properties, since chemical properties are determined by the number and arrangement of electrons in the atom, which is determined by the atomic number. However, because isotopes have a different number of neutrons, they may have slightly different physical properties, such as different atomic masses, densities, and radioactive properties.

**Question 35**
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A piece of metal of relative density 5.0 weighs 60N in air. Calculate its weight when fully immersed in water

**Answer Details**

The weight of an object is equal to the force of gravity acting on it. When an object is submerged in a fluid, it experiences a buoyant force, which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. To calculate the weight of the metal when fully immersed in water, we need to first determine the volume of water displaced by the metal. We can do this by using the principle of Archimedes, which states that the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. The weight of the metal in air is 60N, which is equal to its mass times the acceleration due to gravity. We can calculate the volume of the metal using its density and mass. Density is defined as mass per unit volume. Since the relative density of the metal is 5.0, its density is 5 times that of water, which has a density of 1000 kg/m^3. Density of metal = 5 x Density of water = 5 x 1000 kg/m^3 = 5000 kg/m^3 Mass of metal = Weight of metal / Acceleration due to gravity = 60N / 9.81 m/s^2 = 6.11 kg Volume of metal = Mass of metal / Density of metal = 6.11 kg / 5000 kg/m^3 = 0.001222 m^3 Since the metal is fully submerged in water, the volume of water displaced is equal to the volume of the metal. Weight of water displaced = Density of water x Volume of water displaced x Acceleration due to gravity = 1000 kg/m^3 x 0.001222 m^3 x 9.81 m/s^2 = 12N Therefore, the weight of the metal when fully immersed in water is 60N - 12N = 48N. Answer: 48N

**Question 36**
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The maximum power dissipated by a 100\(\Omega\) resistor in a circuit is 4W. Calculate the voltage across the resistor

**Answer Details**

The maximum power dissipated by a resistor in a circuit occurs when the resistor is operating at its maximum voltage. The power dissipated by a resistor can be calculated as: P = V^2 / R where P is the power in watts, V is the voltage across the resistor in volts, and R is the resistance in ohms. In this case, the power is given as 4W and the resistance is 100Ω, so we can rearrange the formula to solve for V: V^2 = P * R V = sqrt(P * R) Substituting the values given, we get: V = sqrt(4W * 100Ω) = sqrt(400V^2) = 20V Therefore, the voltage across the resistor is 20V. Answer: 20V

**Question 37**
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The horizontal floor of a water reservoir appears to be 1.0m deep when viewed vertically from above. If the refractive index of water is 1.35, calculate the real depth of the reservoir

**Question 38**
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Which of the following statements correctly defines a simple machine? a device

**Answer Details**

The statement that correctly defines a simple machine is: "a device with which work can be done easily". A simple machine is a mechanical device that can change the magnitude or direction of a force, making it easier to perform work. Simple machines include the lever, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, wedge, and screw. By using a simple machine, the force needed to perform a task can be reduced, but the distance through which that force must be applied is increased. This trade-off allows us to apply smaller forces over longer distances to accomplish tasks that would otherwise require much greater forces over shorter distances.

**Question 39**
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Two identical cells each of e.m.f 2v and internal resistance 1.0\(\Omega\) are connected in parallel. The combination is connected to an external load of 1.5\(\Omega\). Calculate the current in the circuit

**Answer Details**

To calculate the current in the circuit, we can use the following steps: 1. Find the equivalent internal resistance of the two cells in parallel: When two resistors are connected in parallel, their equivalent resistance is given by: 1/R_{eq} = 1/R_{1} + 1/R_{2} + ... Here, R_{1} = R_{2} = 1.0\(\Omega\) So, 1/R_{eq} = 1/1.0\(\Omega\) + 1/1.0\(\Omega\) => 1/R_{eq} = 2/1.0\(\Omega\) => R_{eq} = 0.5\(\Omega\) 2. Find the total e.m.f of the two cells in parallel: When two e.m.f sources are connected in parallel, their total e.m.f is the same as the e.m.f of each cell, i.e., 2V in this case. 3. Calculate the total current in the circuit: Using Ohm's law, the total current in the circuit is given by: I = E / (R_{ext} + R_{eq}) Here, E is the total e.m.f (2V), R_{ext} is the external resistance (1.5\(\Omega\)), and R_{eq} is the equivalent internal resistance of the two cells (0.5\(\Omega\)). => I = 2V / (1.5\(\Omega\) + 0.5\(\Omega\)) => I = 2V / 2\(\Omega\) => I = 1.0A Therefore, the current in the circuit is 1.0A. The correct answer is.

**Question 40**
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The minimum energy required to remove an electron from an atom is known as

**Answer Details**

The minimum energy required to remove an electron from an atom is known as ionization energy. It is the energy needed to overcome the attractive force between the negatively charged electrons and positively charged nucleus of an atom. Once an electron is removed from the atom, the atom becomes a positively charged ion. The ionization energy varies depending on the atomic number of the element and the number of electrons in the outermost shell. The ionization energy is an important property of atoms and is used to determine their reactivity and chemical behavior.

**Question 41**
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Which of the following features of an electrostatic line of force is not correct?

**Answer Details**

The following feature of an electrostatic line of force is not correct: "it can cross another line of force in a region of intense electric field". Electrostatic lines of force are used to represent the direction and strength of an electric field. They are drawn such that at any point on a line of force, the tangent to the line gives the direction of the electric field at that point. Importantly, two lines of force cannot cross each other. This is because the direction of the electric field at any point must be uniquely defined, and if two lines crossed, there would be two different directions at the point of intersection. Therefore, the statement "it can cross another line of force in a region of intense electric field" is not correct.

**Question 42**
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Which of the following reactions represents nuclear fusion?

**Answer Details**

Nuclear fusion is a process where two or more atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus. In the given options, the reaction that represents nuclear fusion is: \( ^2_1H + ^2_1H \to ^3_2He + ^1_0n\) In this reaction, two hydrogen nuclei (also called protons) combine to form a helium nucleus (also called an alpha particle) and a neutron. This is the process that occurs in the sun and other stars, where the high temperature and pressure allow nuclear fusion to take place, releasing large amounts of energy.

**Question 43**
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A ball f mass 5.0kg hits a smooth vertical wall normally with a speed of 2ms^{-1}. Determine the magnitude of the resulting impulse

**Question 44**
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A sonometer wire of linear density 0.08kg m^{-1} subjected to a tension of 800N is plucked. Calculate the speed of a pulse which moves from one end of the wire to the other

**Answer Details**

The speed of a pulse that moves through a wire is given by the formula: v = √(T/μ) where T is the tension in the wire and μ is the linear density of the wire. Substituting the given values into the formula, we get: v = √(800 N / 0.08 kg/m) v = √10000 m^{2}/s^{2} v = 100 m/s Therefore, the speed of the pulse that moves from one end of the wire to the other is 100.0 m/s. Answer: 100.0 ms^{-1}

**Question 45**
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A current of 10A passes through a conductor for 10s, calculate the charge flowing through the conductor

**Answer Details**

The charge flowing through a conductor is given by the product of current and time. The equation for charge is Q = I x t. In this case, the current is 10A and the time is 10s, therefore: Q = 10A x 10s = 100C Hence, the charge flowing through the conductor is 100C. Therefore, the correct option is (a) 100.0C.

**Question 46**
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Which of the following statements about the human eye and the camera is correct?

**Question 47**
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(a) Explain diffusion

(b) State one factor that can affect the rate of diffusion.

None

**Answer Details**

None

**Question 48**
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(a)(i) What is meant by neutral point in a magnetic field?

(ii) Draw and label a diagram to show the pattern and direction of the magnetic field produced around a straight current-carrying wire.

(b) When is an ammeter said to be (i) Sensitive (ii) accurate?

(c)(i) Explain, using a labelled diagram, how a delicate magnetic material could be protected, from the Earth's magnetic field.

(ii) A charge of 1.6 x 10\(^{-19}\) C enters a magnetic field of flux density 2.0 T with a velocity of 2.5 x 10\(^7\) ms\(^{-1}\) at an angle of 30° with the field. Calculate the magnitude of the force exerted on the charge by the field.

(d) State the laws of electro-magnetic induction.

None

**Answer Details**

None

**Question 49**
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(a) What is meant by the wave-particles duality of matter?

(b) mention one physical phenomenon, in each case, that can be explained in terms of the wave nature and particle nature of light.

None

**Answer Details**

None

**Question 50**
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**TEST OF PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE QUESTION**

You are provided with a metre rule, a knife edge, two pieces of thread and two masses m\(_{1}\) and m\(_{2}\)

- Record the values of
**m**\(_{1}\) and**m**\(_{2}\). - Balance the metre rule horizontally on the knife edge and record the balance point
**G**. - With the knife edge at the 60 cm mark of the metre rule, suspend
**m**\(_{1}\) at the 20 cm mark and**m**\(_{2}\) at a suitable mark such that the rule balances horizontally as illustrated in the diagram above. - Record the positions
**Y**of**m**\(_{1}\) and Q of**m**\(_{2}\). - Evaluate
**1= P - Y**and**d = Q - P** - Repeat the procedure for four other positions of m, at 18, 16, 14 and 12 cm marks.
- In each case, evaluate and record
**l**and**d**. - Tabulate your readings.
- Plot a graph of
**l**on the vertical axis against**d**on the horizontal axis. - Determine the slope of the graph.
- State two precautions taken to ensure accurate results.

(b}i. With the aid of a diagram, indicate the forces acting on the metre rule in the experimental set-up above.

ii. Define moment of a force about a point and state its S.1. unit.

None

**Answer Details**

None

**Question 51**
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(a) Explain the term electrolyte and give two examples.

(b) State the relationship between the mass of a substance liberated during electrolysis and the charge passed.

None

**Answer Details**

None

**Question 52**
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(a) Using the kinetic theory of matter, explain why;

(i) Evaporation causes cooling

(ii) Boiling water changes to steam without any change in temperature, although heat is being supplied to the water.

(b) (i) State Boyle's law.

(ii) With the aid of a labelled diagram, describe an experiment to illustrate the relationship between the volume and pressure of a given mass of gas at constant temperature. (iii) State two precautions necessary to obtain accurate results.

None

**Answer Details**

None

**Question 53**
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(a)(i) Explain photoelectric emission.

(ii) State four applications of photoelectric emission.

(b) Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a simple type of a photocell and explain its mode of operation.

(c) In a photocell, no electrons are emitted until the threshold frequency of light is reached.

(i) Explain what happens to the energy of the light before emission of electrons begin.

(ii) State one factor that may affect the number of emitted electrons.

None

**Answer Details**

None

**Question 54**
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**TEST OF PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE QUESTION**

Using the diagram above as a guide, carry out the following instructions:

- Fix. the drawing paper provided on the drawing board
- Place the mirror vertically with its longer side resting on the drawing paper. Trace the outline
**AB**of the mirror. Remove the mirror. - Draw a normal
**PQ**to meet the outline at the middle**Q**. - Draw a straight line through
**A**to meet the outline of the mirror at the right angle. - Trace the incident ray,
**Q**with pins P\(_{1}\) and P\(_{2}\) so that it meets the perpendicular line through A at**C**such that**CA=X= 1.0m.** - Replace the mirror on its outline. Locate the images of P\(_{1}\)P\(_{2}\) through the mirror using two other pins P\(_{3}\) and P\(_{4}\) so that P\(_{3}\) and P\(_{4}\) and the images of P\(_{1}\) and P\(_{2}\) are in a straight line.
- Remove the mirror and pins P\(_{3}\) and P\(_{4}\).

Draw a straight line through the pin points to meet**AB**at**Q**and**CA**produced at**D**. - Measure and record angle
**ACQ**as è\(_{1}\), and angle**ADCQ**as è\(_{2}\). Also, record the value of x. Evaluate è = (è\(_{1}\) + è\(_{2}\)), x\(^{-1}\) and tan è. - Repeat the procedure for four other values of x = 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0cm. Tabulate your readings.
- Plot a graph of tan è on the vertical axis against x on the horizontal axis.
- Determine the slope, s, of the graph. Evaluate k = 2s
- State two precautions taken to ensure accurate results. Attach your traces to your answer booklet.

(b)i. Distinguish between regular and diffused reflections.

ii. An object is situated 25cm in front of a plane mirror. Determine the distance of the image from the object. What is the size of the image relative to the object?

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**Question 55**
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(a) State two objects each used in sports and warfare which may be considered as projectiles.

(b) the horizontal range R, of a projectile is given by the expression;

R = \(\frac{u^2 sin 2\theta}{g}\) where \(\theta\) is the angle of projection, g the acceleration of free fall due to gravity and u the initial velocity. At what value of \(\theta\) will R be maximium?

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**Question 56**
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Define;

(i) Elasticity

(ii) Young's modulus

(iii) Force constant

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**Question 57**
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(a) What is the principle upon which the lighting in fluorescent tubes operate?

(b) State two factors which determine the colour of projection, g the acceleration of free fall due to gravity light from a fluorescent tube

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**Question 58**
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**TEST OF PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE QUESTION**

You are provided with a potentiometer x y; a jockey, J; a standard resistor, R, and other necessary apparatus.

- Connect a circuit as shown in the diagram above.
- Close the key. Read and record the current 10 when J is not in contact with
**XY**. - Let J make contact with
**XY**at**C**, such that**XC**=**l**= 25 cm. Close the key. Read and record the current**l**. - Evaluate I\(^{-1}\).
- Repeat the procedure for four other values of I = 40, 55, 70, and 85 cm. Tabulate your readings.
- Plot a graph of
**l**on the vertical axis against I\(^{-1}\) on the horizontal axis. - From your graph, deduce the value of
**I**when l\(^{-1}\) = 0. Evaluate \(\frac{|O}{1}\) - State two precautions taken to ensure accurate results.

(b)i) Explain what is meant by the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit.

ii. A piece of resistance wire of diameter 0.2m and resistance 7\(\Omega\) has a resistivity of 8.8 x 10\(^{-7}\) \(\Omega\)m. Calculate the length of the wire. [\(\pi\) = \(\frac{22}{7}\)].

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**Question 59**
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(a) List two types of waves, apart from light, that can be plane polarized.

(b) State two applications of plane polarized light.

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**Question 60**
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a) (i) Illustrate, using a ray diagram, how an image can be formed by a convex mirror.

(ii) State one advantage rid one disadvantage of using a convex mirror as a iving mirror.

(iii) Explain the action of a compound microscope.

(b) Illustrate using labelled diagrams only, sonometer wire of length I, vibrating at its fundamental (ii) first overtone (iii) second overtone

(c) A tuning fork vibrating at a frequency of 512 Hz is held over the top of a jar filled with water and fitted with a tap at the buttom. If the jar is 60 cm tall and the speed of sound is 350 ms\(^{-1}\), determine the possible resonance position(s).

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**Question 61**
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A force of 40 N applied at the end of a wire of length 4m and diameter 2.00 mm produces an extension of 0.24 mm. Calculate the;

(a) stress on the wire;

(b) strain in the wire (\(\pi = 3.142\))

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**Question 62**
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(a) Define (i) Linear momentum; (ii) Impulse

(b) State the principle of conservation of linear momentum.

(c) A tractor of mass 5.0 x 10\(^{3}\)kg is used a tow a car of mass 2.5 x 103 kg. The tractor moved with a speed of 3.0 ms\(^{-1}\) just before the towing rope becomes taut. Calculate the:

(i) Speed of the tractor immediately the rope becomes taut

(ii) Loss in kinetic energy of the system just after the car has started Moving;

(iii) Impulse in the rope when it jerks the car into motion.

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**Question 63**
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Explain the rise of water in a glass capillary tube using the kinetic theory.

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**Question 64**
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(a) What is surface tension?

(b) State two methods by which the surface tension of a liquid can be reduced.

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