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**Question 1**
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A particle of charge 5C moves perpendicularly to a magnetic Held of magnitude C.01 T. If the velocity of the charge is 1.5ms'2, calculate the magnitude of the force exerted on the particle

**Answer Details**

The force experienced by a charged particle moving in a magnetic field is given by the formula F = Bqv, where B is the magnetic field strength, q is the charge of the particle, and v is the velocity of the particle. In this case, the charge on the particle is 5C, the magnetic field strength is 0.01T, and the velocity of the particle is 1.5ms^{-1}. Thus, substituting the given values into the formula, we get: F = (0.01T)(5C)(1.5ms^{-1}) = 0.075N Therefore, the magnitude of the force exerted on the particle is 0.075N. So, the correct option is (b) 0.075N.

**Question 2**
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Which of the following is not a conductor of electricity?

**Answer Details**

Glass is not a conductor of electricity. This is because it is a non-metallic material and does not have any free electrons to carry the electric charge. In contrast, metals such as silver and copper are good conductors of electricity because they have a large number of free electrons that can move easily through the material in response to an electric field. The human body can also conduct electricity to some extent, although this can be dangerous depending on the circumstances. The Earth is a complex case - it is a good conductor of electricity in some contexts, such as during a lightning strike, but is not a good conductor in other contexts.

**Question 3**
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The potential difference between two points A and B situated at a distance d apart is V. Which of the following expresses the magnitude of the electric field intensity between the two points assuming the field is uniform?

**Answer Details**

The correct expression that expresses the magnitude of the electric field intensity between two points A and B situated at a distance d apart is, which is Vd^{-1}. The electric field intensity is defined as the amount of electric force acting per unit charge. The potential difference between two points is defined as the work done per unit charge in moving a positive charge from one point to another. Hence, the electric field intensity E between the two points A and B can be obtained by dividing the potential difference V by the distance d between the two points. Therefore, E = V/d, which is equivalent to Vd^{-1}.

**Question 4**
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Which of the following instruments can be used to compare the relative magnitude of similar charges on two given bodies?

**Answer Details**

A Gold-leaf electroscope can be used to compare the relative magnitude of similar charges on two given bodies. A Gold-leaf electroscope is an instrument that detects the presence of an electric charge by using two thin gold leaves that are suspended from a conducting rod. When a charged object is brought near the electroscope, the leaves are repelled due to the electrostatic force of the charge. The amount of separation of the leaves gives an indication of the magnitude of the charge on the object. By comparing the amount of separation of the leaves with two different charged objects, it is possible to determine the relative magnitude of the charges on the objects.

**Question 5**
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Which of the following indicates the correct sequence of steps taken in charging a gold-leaf electroscope by induction? l. Removing the ebonite rod ll. Bringing a negatively charged ebonite rod close to the cap III. Earthing the cap IV. Disconnecting the earthing

**Answer Details**

Charging a gold-leaf electroscope by induction involves the following steps: 1. Bringing a charged object (in this case, a negatively charged ebonite rod) close to the cap of the electroscope. This causes the electrons in the cap to be repelled and move to the leaves, which causes them to separate. 2. Earthing the cap. This involves touching the cap of the electroscope with a finger or a conducting wire, which allows the excess charge to flow to the ground. This leaves the electroscope with a temporary charge imbalance. 3. Disconnecting the earthing. This involves removing the finger or conducting wire from the cap of the electroscope, which breaks the connection to the ground. 4. Removing the charged object (the negatively charged ebonite rod). Therefore, the correct sequence of steps for charging a gold-leaf electroscope by induction is: II (bringing a negatively charged ebonite rod close to the cap), III (earthing the cap), IV (disconnecting the earthing), and I (removing the ebonite rod). The answer is option (II, III, IV and I).

**Question 6**
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Which of the following is used a nuclear reactor to slow down fast moving neutrons?

**Question 7**
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Which of the following is a derived unit?

**Answer Details**

A derived unit is a unit that is obtained by combining base units. Base units are the fundamental units of measurement that are defined by standards and are used to measure physical quantities such as length, mass, time, electric current, temperature, and amount of substance. Out of the options given, Ohm is the only derived unit. It is derived from the base units of length, mass, and time, and is used to measure electrical resistance. Ampere is the base unit of electric current, kilogramme is the base unit of mass, second is the base unit of time, and Kelvin is the base unit of temperature.

**Question 8**
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An object is placed between two mirrors which are inclined at an angle of 120° and facing each other. Determine the number of images observed in the two mirrors

**Answer Details**

When two mirrors are inclined at an angle, the number of images formed is given by the formula n = 360°/θ - 1, where n is the number of images and θ is the angle between the mirrors. In this case, the angle between the two mirrors is 120°. Substituting in the formula we have, n = 360°/120° - 1 = 3 - 1 = 2. Therefore, two images will be observed in the two mirrors.

**Question 9**
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24 Na → | 24 mg^{4} + X + energy |
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11 | 2 |

The equation above represents a nuclear decay of sodium isotope. What is X?

**Answer Details**

The equation above represents a nuclear decay of a sodium isotope. In the equation, the left-hand side represents the parent nucleus (24 Na) and the right-hand side represents the daughter nucleus (24 mg4) and the emitted particles. The mass number (24) is conserved on both sides of the equation, but the atomic number (11) on the left side is larger than the atomic number (12) on the right side, indicating that the parent nucleus has undergone beta decay. During beta decay, a neutron in the nucleus is converted into a proton and an electron, which is emitted as a beta particle. Therefore, the X in the equation represents a beta particle.

**Question 10**
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How far will a body move in 4 seconds if uniformly accelerated from rest at the rate of 2 ms^{-2}?

**Answer Details**

The formula for distance traveled by a body with uniform acceleration is given by: distance = (1/2) × acceleration × time² Given that the body starts from rest (initial velocity = 0), and the acceleration is 2ms⁻², and the time taken is 4 seconds, we can substitute these values in the above formula and get: distance = (1/2) × 2ms⁻² × (4 s)² = 16 m Therefore, the distance moved by the body in 4 seconds is 16 meters. Hence, the answer is option (iii) 16m.

**Question 11**
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In the normal use of a simple microscope, a person sees an

**Answer Details**

In the normal use of a simple microscope, a person sees an erect, virtual and magnified image. When the object is placed below the focus point of the lens, the lens produces an enlarged virtual image that is upright, meaning it is not inverted. The image is virtual, which means it appears to be at a position where light rays do not actually converge. Finally, the image is magnified, meaning it appears larger than the actual size of the object.

**Question 12**
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Electric motor primarily converts

**Answer Details**

An electric motor primarily converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. An electric motor is a device that works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. When an electric current is passed through a coil of wire that is placed in a magnetic field, a force is generated on the wire, causing it to rotate. This rotational motion is then used to power various machines and devices, such as fans, pumps, and machinery. Thus, an electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, which can be used for various applications.

**Question 13**
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The unit of inductance is

**Answer Details**

The unit of inductance is henry. Inductance is a property of an electrical circuit that opposes any change in current flowing through it. It is defined as the ratio of the magnetic flux through a circuit to the current flowing in the circuit. The unit is named after Joseph Henry, an American scientist who discovered electromagnetic induction independently of Michael Faraday. The symbol for inductance is H, and one henry is defined as the amount of inductance that will produce an electromotive force of one volt when the current through the inductor changes at a rate of one ampere per second.

**Question 14**
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The images formed by a diverging lens are always

**Answer Details**

A diverging lens, also known as a concave lens, is a lens that is thinnest at its center and thicker towards its edges. This type of lens always forms an image that is virtual, upright, and diminished. A virtual image is an image that cannot be projected onto a screen and is located behind the lens. An upright image is one that appears in the same orientation as the object being viewed. A diminished image is one that is smaller than the object being viewed. Therefore, the correct answer is "diminished, virtual and erect".

**Question 15**
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In a ripple tank experiment, a vibrating plate is used to generate ripples in the water. If the distance between two successive troughs is 3.5 cm and the wave travels a distance of 31.5 cm in 1.5 s, calculate the frequency of the vibrator

**Question 16**
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A body moves along a circular path with uniform angular speed of 0.6 rad s^{-1} and at a constant speed of 3.0ms^{-1}. Calculate the acceleration of the body towards the centre of the circle.

**Answer Details**

When an object moves in a circle, it is constantly changing its direction, which means that it is accelerating. This is because acceleration is the rate of change of velocity, and velocity is a vector that includes both speed and direction. In this case, the object is moving with a uniform angular speed, which means that it is moving at a constant speed in a circle. The formula for acceleration towards the center of a circle is given by a = v^2 / r, where v is the speed of the object and r is the radius of the circle. We know that the speed of the object is 3.0 m/s, and we are given the angular speed of the object as 0.6 rad/s. Angular speed is the rate at which the object moves around the circle in radians per second. To find the radius of the circle, we need to use the relationship between angular speed, linear speed, and radius, which is given by v = ωr, where ω is the angular speed. Rearranging this formula gives us r = v/ω. Substituting the values we have, we get r = 3.0 m/s / 0.6 rad/s = 5.0 m. Now we can calculate the acceleration towards the center of the circle using the formula a = v^2 / r. Substituting the values we have, we get a = (3.0 m/s)^2 / 5.0 m = 1.8 m/s^2. Therefore, the answer is option D: 1.8 ms^-2.

**Question 17**
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What is the gravitational potential due to a point mass m at a distance from it? (G = gravitational constant)

**Answer Details**

The gravitational potential due to a point mass m at a distance r from it is given by the expression: - -Gm/r Here, G is the gravitational constant which has a fixed value, m is the mass of the point source and r is the distance between the point source and the point at which we want to calculate the gravitational potential. The negative sign indicates that the gravitational potential decreases with an increase in distance from the source. This expression is derived from the equation for gravitational potential energy, which is given by: - U = -GmM/r where M is the mass of the object that is being attracted by the point source. The negative sign indicates that the potential energy of the system decreases as the two masses move closer to each other. The gravitational potential is the potential energy per unit mass, so dividing both sides of the above equation by M, we get: - V = U/M = -Gm/r Therefore, the gravitational potential due to a point mass m at a distance r from it is -Gm/r.

**Question 18**
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A body of mass M1 moving with a velocity U collides with a stationary body of mass M2 and both move with a common velocity V lf linear momentum is conserved, which of the following expressions correctly represents V?

**Answer Details**

When two objects collide, the total momentum before the collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision. That is, the momentum is conserved. Therefore, we can write: M_{1}U = (M_{1} + M_{2})V Solving for V, we get: V = (M_{1}U)/(M_{1} + M_{2}) So the correct expression for V is:

M_{1}U/M_{1} + M_{2}

**Question 19**
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The phenomenon of radioactivity was first discovered by

**Answer Details**

The phenomenon of radioactivity was first discovered by Henn Becquerel. In 1896, Becquerel discovered that a uranium compound placed near a photographic plate caused the plate to darken. This phenomenon occurred even when the uranium compound was not exposed to light, suggesting that it was emitting a type of radiation that could penetrate through solid objects. Becquerel's discovery paved the way for further research into radioactivity, which eventually led to the development of nuclear physics and its applications.

**Question 20**
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According to the kinetic theory of gases the collision

of the molecules of a gas with the wall of the container

is mainly responsible for the l. temperature of the

gas ll. viscosity of the gas Ill. pressure of the gas

Which of the statements above is/are correct?

**Question 21**
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When an atom is in the ground state, it is said to be

**Answer Details**

When an atom is in the ground state, it means that all its electrons are in their lowest energy levels, which are also called their stable energy levels. In this state, the atom is said to be in its most stable and lowest energy state, and is less likely to undergo any chemical or nuclear reactions. When an atom absorbs energy, its electrons can move to higher energy levels, and the atom is then said to be in an excited state. Atoms in excited states are generally more reactive and can undergo chemical or nuclear reactions. Therefore, the correct answer to the question is "stable."

**Question 22**
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A gas has a volume of 546 cm^{3} at O^{o}C. What is the volume of the gas at- 100^{o}C if its pressure remains constant?

**Answer Details**

This question relates to the effect of temperature on the volume of a gas. According to Charles's law, at constant pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. This means that as the temperature of a gas increases, its volume increases proportionally, and vice versa. In this question, the initial volume of the gas is given as 546 cm^{3} at O^{o}C, which is 273K. The final temperature is given as -100^{o}C, which is 173K. Since the pressure of the gas remains constant, we can use the formula V1/T1 = V2/T2 to find the final volume (V2) of the gas at the new temperature. Substituting the given values in the formula, we have: V1/T1 = V2/T2 546/273 = V2/173 Cross-multiplying, we get: V2 = 546 x 173/273 = 346 cm^{3} Therefore, the final volume of the gas at -100^{o}C, assuming constant pressure, is 346 cm^{3}. Hence, the correct option is: 346 cm^{3}.

**Question 23**
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What amount of current would pass through a 10 Ω coil if it takes 21s for the coil to just melt a lump of ice of mass 10g at 0^{o}C if there are no heat losses? (Latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 Jg^{-1}).

**Answer Details**

We can solve this problem by first finding the amount of heat energy required to melt the ice and then using that to calculate the current passing through the coil. The amount of heat energy required to melt the ice is given by: Q = mL where Q is the amount of heat energy, m is the mass of the ice, and L is the latent heat of fusion of ice. Substituting the given values, we get: Q = 10g x 336 Jg^{-1} = 3360 J Since there are no heat losses, all the electrical energy supplied to the coil is converted into heat energy to melt the ice. The electrical energy supplied is given by: E = VIt where E is the electrical energy, V is the voltage, I is the current, and t is the time taken. Since the voltage is not given, we cannot directly solve for the current. However, we can use the fact that the coil melts the ice in 21 seconds to find the current. Since all the electrical energy supplied is used to melt the ice, we can equate E and Q: VIt = 3360 J Solving for I, we get: I = 3360 J / (Vt) Substituting the given values, we get: I = 3360 J / (10 Ω x 21 s) = 16.00 A Therefore, the amount of current passing through the coil is 16.00 A. Answer: 16.00A

**Question 24**
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A radioactive substance has a half-life of 20 hours. What traction of the original radioactive nuclide will remain after 80 hours?

**Question 25**
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Which of the following are correct of plane- polarized light? I. Plane polarization of light is the formation of hydrogen bubbles on the particles of light. II. Plane polarization of light is the splitting of light into its spectral components III. Plane-polarized light vibrates in one plane only. IV. Polarization is characteristic of transverse waves.

**Question 26**
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A point charge of 1.0 x 10^{-7} C experiences force of 0.01 N in a uniform electric field. Calculate the magnitude of the strength of the field

**Answer Details**

The electric field strength is defined as the force experienced by a unit charge in an electric field. Mathematically, the electric field strength (E) is given by: E = F / q where F is the force experienced by the charge and q is the magnitude of the charge. In this question, we are given the force (F) experienced by a point charge of 1.0 x 10^-7 C in a uniform electric field. The force is 0.01 N. Therefore, we can calculate the electric field strength as: E = F / q E = 0.01 / 1.0 x 10^-7 E = 1.0 x 10^5 Vm^-1 Therefore, the magnitude of the strength of the electric field is 1.0 x 10^5 Vm^-1. The correct option is (b).

**Question 27**
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A particle starts from rest and moves with a constant acceleration of 0.5 ms^{-2}? Calculate the time taken by the particle to cover a distance of 25m.

**Answer Details**

The formula to calculate the distance covered by an object with constant acceleration is: distance = (initial velocity * time) + (0.5 * acceleration * time^2) Here, the particle starts from rest, which means its initial velocity (u) is 0. The acceleration (a) is given as 0.5 ms^-2, and the distance covered (s) is 25m. So we can rewrite the formula as: 25m = (0 * t) + (0.5 * 0.5 ms^-2 * t^2) Simplifying: 25m = 0.25 * t^2 t^2 = 100 t = sqrt(100) = 10s Therefore, the time taken by the particle to cover a distance of 25m is 10 seconds. Hence, the correct answer is 10.0s.

**Question 28**
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The quality of a note produced by a vibrating string is determined by the

**Question 29**
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ln the diagram below, the galvanometer indicates a null-deflection. What is the potential difference between P and Q?

**Question 30**
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Which of the following have the greatest penetrating power?

**Answer Details**

Gamma rays have the greatest penetrating power. This is because they have high energy and no charge, which allows them to penetrate most materials with ease. Alpha particles, on the other hand, have the least penetrating power due to their large size and positive charge. Beta particles and electrons have moderate penetrating power, while neutrons have low to moderate penetrating power depending on their energy level.

**Question 31**
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Which of the following are emitted from a radioactive substance without altering either the nucleon number or the proton number of the substance?

**Answer Details**

Gamma rays are emitted from a radioactive substance without altering either the nucleon number or the proton number of the substance. This means that gamma rays do not affect the atomic structure of the substance, but rather carry energy away from the nucleus. In contrast, alpha and beta particles are emitted during radioactive decay and do change the composition of the nucleus by altering the nucleon and/or proton numbers. Protons and neutrons are subatomic particles that make up the nucleus of an atom and are not typically emitted during radioactive decay. Therefore, the correct answer is gamma rays.

**Question 32**
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Longitudinal waves cannot be

**Answer Details**

Longitudinal waves are a type of mechanical waves where the vibrations of the particles are parallel to the direction of wave propagation. These waves can undergo reflection, diffraction, and superposition with other waves. However, longitudinal waves cannot be polarized, which means their vibrations cannot be restricted to a single plane. This is because the particles in the wave are oscillating back and forth in the same direction as the wave is traveling, so there is no way to restrict their motion to a single plane. Therefore, the answer is polarized.

**Question 33**
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A body of mass m = 0.5 kg is suspended by a string and pulled by a horizontal force of 1g N as shown in the 12N diagram: Calculate the tension T in the String if the body is in equilibrium. [Take g as 10ms^{-1}]

**Question 34**
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Which of the following is correct about light and sound waves?

**Answer Details**

Light and sound waves are both associated with energy transfer, but they differ in many other aspects. Sound waves are mechanical waves that require a material medium to propagate, such as air, water, or solids. In contrast, light waves are electromagnetic waves that can propagate through vacuum and do not require a material medium. Sound waves are longitudinal waves, which means that the particles of the medium vibrate parallel to the direction of the wave propagation. On the other hand, light waves are transverse waves, which means that the electric and magnetic fields oscillate perpendicular to the direction of the wave propagation. The velocity of sound waves depends on the medium through which they propagate, and it is generally much slower than the velocity of light in vacuum. For instance, the velocity of sound in air at room temperature is about 330 m/s, while the velocity of light in vacuum is approximately 3 x 10^8 m/s. Finally, only light waves can be polarized, meaning that their oscillations can be confined to a particular plane. Sound waves cannot be polarized.

**Question 35**
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In a purely resistive a.c. circuit, the current I = I_{o} sin wt and voltage, V = V_{o} sin wt. Calculate the instantaneous power dissipated in the circuit in time t.

**Answer Details**

The instantaneous power P in a purely resistive AC circuit is given by the formula P = VI, where V is the voltage and I is the current in the circuit. In this case, we have I = I_{o} sin wt and V = V_{o} sin wt, so we can substitute these values into the formula to get: P = VI = (I_{o} sin wt) (V_{o} sin wt) Expanding this equation, we get: P = I_{o} V_{o} sin^{2}wt Therefore, the answer is (d) I_{o} V_{o} sin^{2}wt.

**Question 36**
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Calculate the current, I in the diagram shown above.

(Neglect the internal resistance of the cell)

**Question 37**
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Electrical resistance is the property of an electrical conductor that causes electrical energy to be converted into

**Answer Details**

Electrical resistance is a measure of how much a material opposes the flow of electric current. When an electric current flows through a conductor, some of the electrical energy is converted into heat energy due to collisions between electrons and the atoms of the conductor. This conversion of electrical energy into heat energy is the result of electrical resistance. Therefore, the correct answer is "heat energy".

**Question 38**
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In a series R - C circuit, the resistance of the resistor is 4 Ω and capacitive reactance is 3 Ω. Calculate the impedance of the circuit

**Answer Details**

In a series R-C circuit, the total impedance (Z) is given by the square root of the sum of the squares of the resistance (R) and reactance (X). Mathematically, we can represent this as Z = sqrt(R^2 + X^2). In this case, R = 4Ω and Xc = 3Ω. Since the capacitor has a negative reactance, we can write Xc as -1/ωC, where ω is the angular frequency of the circuit and C is the capacitance of the capacitor. However, since we are not given the frequency or capacitance in the question, we cannot calculate the exact value of Xc. Therefore, we will assume that Xc = -3Ω, which means that the capacitive reactance cancels out part of the resistance. Now, we can use the formula for impedance to calculate the total impedance of the circuit as follows: Z = sqrt(R^2 + Xc^2) Z = sqrt(4^2 + (-3)^2) Z = sqrt(16 + 9) Z = sqrt(25) Z = 5Ω Therefore, the impedance of the circuit is 5Ω.

**Question 39**
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In the diagram above, three identical lamps each of 100 W are connected in parallel across a potential difference of 250 V. Calculate the reading of the ammeter.

**Answer Details**

In a parallel circuit, the potential difference across each component is the same. Therefore, each of the three lamps has a potential difference of 250 V across it. Each lamp has a power of 100 W, so the current passing through it is: I = P / V = 100 / 250 = 0.4 A Since the three lamps are in parallel, the total current drawn from the supply is the sum of the current through each lamp: I_{total} = 0.4 + 0.4 + 0.4 = 1.2 A Therefore, the reading of the ammeter would be 1.2A. Answer: 1.2A

**Question 40**
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A short chain is usually attached to the back of a petrol tanker and trailing behind it so that the

**Answer Details**

The purpose of a short chain attached to the back of a petrol tanker and trailing behind it is to ensure that any charges generated by friction in the tanker are conducted to the earth. This is done to prevent any static electricity buildup, which could potentially lead to dangerous sparks or even explosions when the petrol is being pumped or transferred. The chain provides a path for any static charges to dissipate harmlessly into the earth, minimizing the risk of accidents.

**Question 41**
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When a potential difference, V is applied across the ends of a resistor of resistance, R a Current, l passes through the resistor. The heat generated in the resistor in time, t is given by the expression

**Question 42**
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The vector diagram shown below represents the resistance R, the capacitive reactance X_{c}, the inductive reactance X_{c} and the impedance, Z in an R-L-C circuit. The current in the circuit will be maximum when

**Question 43**
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lf Einstein’s photoelectric equation is represented by hf - W = Φ where h is Planck’s constant, f the frequency of incident radiation and W the work function of the material, what does the symbol Φ up stand for?

**Question 44**
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The expansion of solids can be considered a disadvantage in the

**Question 45**
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A man stands in front of a tall wall and produces a sound. If he receives the echo of the sound two seconds later, calculate his distance from the wall. (The speed of sound in air is 330ms^{-1})

**Answer Details**

When a sound wave travels and hits a surface, it reflects back as an echo. The time taken for the echo to return to the source is twice the time taken for the sound to travel from the source to the reflecting surface. Let's call the distance between the man and the wall "x". The sound travels the distance "x" to the wall and then reflects back to the man another distance "x". So, the total distance traveled by the sound is 2x. We know that the speed of sound in air is 330ms^{-1}. Using the formula, distance = speed x time we can write the equation as follows: 2x = 330 x 2 Simplifying this equation, we get: 2x = 660 Dividing both sides by 2, we get: x = 330 Therefore, the distance between the man and the wall is 330 meters. So the correct answer is: 330m.

**Question 46**
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Calculate the escape velocity of a satellite launched from the earth’s surface (Take g as 10ms^{-2} and the radius of the earth as 6.4 x 10^{6}m)

**Question 47**
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The function of the magnanese (IV) oxide in a leclanche cell is to

**Answer Details**

The function of manganese (IV) oxide in a Leclanche cell is to prevent polarization in the cell. When a Leclanche cell discharges, the zinc electrode releases electrons to the anode, forming zinc ions and releasing hydrogen ions in the electrolyte. As more and more hydrogen ions are produced, the concentration of hydrogen ions increases, and the cell's voltage drops, leading to a phenomenon known as polarization. Manganese (IV) oxide acts as a depolarizer, which reacts with the hydrogen ions in the electrolyte to produce water and prevent the accumulation of hydrogen ions. This helps to maintain the voltage of the cell and prevent polarization. Therefore, option C, "prevent polarization in the cell," is the correct answer.

**Question 48**
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A lens of focal length 15.0 cm forms an upright image four times the size of an object. Calculate the distance of the image from the lens

**Question 49**
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Which of the following is not an example of a force?

**Answer Details**

Out of the given options, "mass" is not an example of a force. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter present in an object, and it is measured in kilograms or grams. On the other hand, force is a physical quantity that changes or tends to change the state of rest or motion of an object. It is measured in newtons (N). Therefore, the correct answer is "Mass."

**Question 50**
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Eight or - particles and size B - particles are emitted from an atom of _{92}^{238}U before it achieves stability. What is the nucleon number of the final product in the chain reaction?

**Answer Details**

The initial atom of Uranium-238 emits eight alpha particles (helium-4 nuclei) and B beta particles (electrons or positrons) in order to reach stability. An alpha particle contains two protons and two neutrons, so the emission of one alpha particle reduces the nucleon number by 4. Thus, the total reduction in nucleon number due to the emission of eight alpha particles is 8 x 4 = 32. A beta particle, on the other hand, has negligible mass and does not affect the nucleon number of the atom. Therefore, the nucleon number of the final product in the chain reaction can be calculated by subtracting the total reduction in nucleon number (32) from the original nucleon number of 238. 238 - 32 = 206 Hence, the nucleon number of the final product is 206. Therefore, the correct option is (a) 206.

**Question 51**
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A block of material of volume 2 X 1O^{-5}m^{3} and density 2.5 x 10^{-3} kgm^{-3} is suspended from a spring balance with half volume of the block immersed in water. What is the reading of the spring balance? (Density of water =1.0x10^{3} kg m^{-3} g = 10 ms^{-2}).

**Answer Details**

The weight of the block is given by the formula: Weight = Volume x Density x g where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Therefore, the weight of the block is: Weight = (2 x 10^-5 m^3) x (2.5 x 10^-3 kg/m^3) x (10 m/s^2) = 5 x 10^-4 N When the block is half-immersed in water, the upthrust on the block is equal to the weight of the water displaced. The volume of water displaced is half the volume of the block, so the weight of the water displaced is: Weight of water = Volume of water x Density of water x g = (1 x 10^-5 m^3) x (1.0 x 10^3 kg/m^3) x (10 m/s^2) = 0.1 N The reading on the spring balance is equal to the weight of the block minus the weight of the water displaced, so: Reading = Weight - Weight of water = (5 x 10^-4 N) - (0.1 N) = 0.4 N Therefore, the reading on the spring balance is 0.40N.

**Question 52**
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Which of the following have the longest wavelengths?

**Answer Details**

Radio waves have the longest wavelengths among the given options. This is because radio waves have the lowest frequency and the longest wavelength in the electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from about 1 millimeter to over 100 kilometers. They are commonly used for communication purposes, such as radio and television broadcasts, cell phone signals, and Wi-Fi. Infra-red, ultra-violet, X-rays, and gamma rays have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than radio waves, and are used in various applications such as medical imaging, sterilization, and remote sensing.

**Question 53**
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A body timed 20 oscillations of a certain pendulum three times and obtained 44.3s, 45.5s and 45.7s respectively. Calculate the mean period of oscillation of the pendulum

**Answer Details**

To calculate the mean period of oscillation, we need to find the time taken for one oscillation (the period) for each of the three trials, and then take the average. Let's start by calculating the time taken for one oscillation for each trial. For the first trial, the time taken for 20 oscillations is 44.3 s, so the time taken for one oscillation is: Time for 1 oscillation = 44.3 s ÷ 20 = 2.215 s Similarly, for the second trial: Time for 1 oscillation = 45.5 s ÷ 20 = 2.275 s And for the third trial: Time for 1 oscillation = 45.7 s ÷ 20 = 2.285 s Now, we can calculate the mean period of oscillation by taking the average of these three values: Mean period of oscillation = (2.215 s + 2.275 s + 2.285 s) ÷ 3 ≈ 2.26 s Therefore, the mean period of oscillation of the pendulum is approximately 2.26 s. The correct answer is 2.26s.

**Question 54**
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An object is projected with a velocity of 100 ms^{-1} from the ground level at an angle 0 to the vertical. If the total time of flight of the projectile is 10 s, calculate θ. (g = 10 ms^{-2}).

**Answer Details**

When an object is projected at an angle to the vertical, it moves in a curved path called a projectile motion. The horizontal and vertical motions of the projectile are independent of each other. The time of flight is the total time taken by the projectile to reach the maximum height and return to the ground level. Let's denote θ as the angle of projection. We can use the following equations to solve for θ: Time of flight = 2usinθ/g where u is the initial velocity and g is the acceleration due to gravity. In this case, u = 100 ms^-1 and the time of flight = 10 s. Therefore, 10 = 2 x 100 x sinθ / 10 Simplifying, we get sinθ = 0.5 To find θ, we take the inverse sine (sin^-1) of 0.5, which gives us θ = 30°. Therefore, the answer is θ = 30°.

**Question 55**
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A solid metal cube of side 10 cm is heated from

10^{o}C to 60^{o}C. lf the linear expansivity of the metal is 1.2 x 10^{5}K^{-1}, calculate the increase in its volume.

**Question 56**
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Which of the following is a percussion instrument?

**Answer Details**

Out of the given options, the percussion instrument is a bell. A percussion instrument is any musical instrument that produces sound through striking, shaking or scraping. Bells are struck to produce sound, thus making them a percussion instrument. Flute, organ, piano, and sonometer are not percussion instruments, as they produce sound through blowing, pressing keys, or plucking strings.

**Question 57**
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If the temperature of water is gradually increased from 0^{o} to 4^{o}C, the density of the water within this range

**Question 58**
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A household refrigerator consumes electrical energy at the rate of 200 W. lf electricity costs 5 k per kWh, calculate the cost of operating the appliance for 30 days.

**Answer Details**

To calculate the cost of operating the refrigerator for 30 days, we need to determine the total energy consumed by the refrigerator in that time period. The energy consumed by an electrical appliance is given by the product of its power and the time for which it is operated. Here, the power of the refrigerator is 200 W, and the time for which it is operated is 30 days. However, we need to convert the time to hours since the power is given in watts, which is a unit of power per unit time, usually measured in seconds. One day has 24 hours, so 30 days have 30 x 24 = 720 hours. Therefore, the total energy consumed by the refrigerator in 30 days is: Energy = Power x Time Energy = 200 W x 720 hours Energy = 144000 Wh We now need to convert this energy to kilowatt-hours (kWh) since the cost of electricity is given in k per kWh. To do this, we divide the energy by 1000: Energy = 144000 Wh = 144 kWh The cost of electricity is 5 k per kWh, so the cost of operating the refrigerator for 30 days is: Cost = Energy x Cost per kWh Cost = 144 kWh x 5 k/kWh Cost = 720 kobo or N7.20 Therefore, the correct answer is option A) N7.20.

**Question 59**
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An image which cannot be formed on a screen is said to be

**Answer Details**

An image which cannot be formed on a screen is said to be a virtual image. A virtual image is formed when light rays diverge after reflection or refraction and they do not actually pass through the position of the image. Therefore, the image cannot be projected onto a screen or captured on a surface. Virtual images are always erect and cannot be focused. Examples of virtual images are the images formed by a plane mirror or a convex lens when the object is placed inside the focal point.

**Question 60**
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How long does it take a 750 W heater operating at full rating to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 40^{o}C to 70^{o}C? (Take the specific heat capacity of water as 4200 J kg^{-1} K^{-1} and neglect heat losses).

**Answer Details**

To solve this problem, we can use the formula: Q = mcΔT Where Q is the heat energy required, m is the mass of water, c is the specific heat capacity of water, and ΔT is the change in temperature. We can calculate Q as follows: Q = (1 kg) x (4200 J/kg K) x (70°C - 40°C) Q = 126,000 J We can then use the formula: P = Q/t Where P is the power of the heater in watts and t is the time taken to heat the water. Rearranging this formula to solve for t, we get: t = Q/P Substituting the values we know, we get: t = (126,000 J) / (750 W) t = 168 seconds Therefore, it will take the 750 W heater operating at full rating 168 seconds to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 40°C to 70°C. The answer is (c) 168s.

**Question 61**
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(a)(i) Explain what is meant by a machine (ii) Define the terms: mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency as applied to a machine. Derive the equation connecting the three terms.

(b) Explain why the efficiency of a machine is usually less than 100%

(c) A screw jack whose pitch is 4.4mm is used to raise a body of mass 8000 kg through a height of 20cm. The length of the tommy bar of the jack is 70cm. If the efficiency of the jack is 80%, calcuate the: (i) velocity ratio of the jack; (ii) mechanical advantage of the jack (iii) effort required in raising the body, (iv) work done by the effort in raising the body \((g = 10ms^{-2}; \pi = \frac{22}{7}\))

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**Question 62**
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(a) Explain the following, illustrating your answer with one example in each case: (i) nuclear fusion: (ii) nuclear fission: (iii) radiation hazards.

(b) State two advantages of fusion over fission and explain briefly why, in spite of these advantages, fusion is not normally used for the generation of power.

(c) The current, I in an a.c. circuit is given by the equation: \(I = 30 sin 100\pi t\), where t is the time in seconds. Deduce the following from this equation: (i) frequency of the current (ii) peak value of the current, (iii) r.m.s value of the current.

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**Answer Details**

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**Question 63**
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(a) State the laws of electromagnetic induction.

(b) Draw a labelled diagram of a simple d.c. generator and explain how it works.

(c) State three methods by which higher e.m.f. could be obtained from the generator.

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**Answer Details**

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