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**Question 1**
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Which of the following is an essential physical property of the wires uses for making fuses ?

**Answer Details**

The essential physical property of the wire used for making fuses is low melting point. This means that the wire should have a low temperature at which it melts and breaks, interrupting the flow of electrical current. This is important in a fuse because when there is an overload of electrical current, the wire will melt, breaking the circuit and preventing damage to the electrical system. The other options, low density, low electrical resistivity, and hypothermal conductivity, are not as important for a fuse wire. Low density is the property of a material to be light, and it doesn't necessarily affect the performance of a fuse wire. Low electrical resistivity is the property of a material to have low resistance to the flow of electrical current, and it doesn't necessarily affect the performance of a fuse wire either. Hypothermal conductivity is the property of a material to conduct heat poorly, and it also doesn't necessarily affect the performance of a fuse wire.

**Question 2**
**Report**

An object is placed 20cm from a concave mirror of focal length 10cm. The linear magnification of the image produced is?

**Answer Details**

The linear magnification of an image is given by the formula: magnification = height of image / height of object = -v/u where v is the image distance, u is the object distance, and the negative sign indicates that the image is inverted. In this problem, the object is placed 20cm from a concave mirror of focal length 10cm. Since the object is placed beyond the focal point, the image will be real and inverted. Using the mirror formula 1/f = 1/v + 1/u, we can find the image distance v: 1/10 = 1/v + 1/20 Solving for v, we get: v = -20 cm Now, we can use the magnification formula to find the linear magnification: magnification = -v/u = -(-20)/20 = 1 Therefore, the linear magnification of the image produced is 1, which means the image is the same size as the object and is also inverted. The answer is: 1.

**Question 3**
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In the diagram shown, which of the simple pendulum will resonate with P when set into oscillation?

**Answer Details**

**Question 4**
**Report**

A lens of focal length 15cm forms on erect image which is three times the size of the object. The distance between the object and the image is ___.

**Answer Details**

We can use the lens formula, 1/f = 1/v - 1/u, where f is the focal length of the lens, v is the distance between the lens and the image, and u is the distance between the lens and the object. From the problem, we know that the focal length of the lens is 15 cm, and the image is erect and three times the size of the object. This means that the image distance v is positive and the object distance u is negative (since the object is in front of the lens). Let's assume that the object distance u is -x cm, where x is a positive number. Then, the image distance v is +3x cm, since the image is three times the size of the object. Substituting these values into the lens formula, we get: 1/15 = 1/(+3x) - 1/(-x) Simplifying the right-hand side, we get: 1/15 = (1 + 3)/3x Multiplying both sides by 3x, we get: 3x/15 = 4 Simplifying, we get: x = 20 Therefore, the distance between the object and the lens is -20 cm (since it is in front of the lens), and the distance between the image and the lens is +60 cm (since it is behind the lens). The distance between the object and the image is the sum of these distances, which is: (-20) + (+60) = 40 cm Therefore, the answer is 40cm.

**Question 5**
**Report**

The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 10kg of Copper by 1K is its

**Answer Details**

The correct answer is "specific heat capacity." Specific heat capacity is a measure of how much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of a certain amount of a substance by 1 degree Celsius (or 1 Kelvin, which is the same size as 1 degree Celsius). In this case, we are dealing with 10kg of copper, so we need to know the specific heat capacity of copper. The specific heat capacity of copper is 0.385 J/g°C (joules per gram per degree Celsius). To calculate the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 10kg of copper by 1K, we need to know the total mass of copper (10kg) and the specific heat capacity of copper (0.385 J/g°C). The formula for calculating the amount of heat energy required is: Heat energy = mass x specific heat capacity x change in temperature Since we want to raise the temperature by 1K, the change in temperature is 1K. So, the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 10kg of copper by 1K is: Heat energy = 10kg x 0.385 J/g°C x 1K = 3.85 kJ Therefore, it takes 3.85 kilojoules (kJ) of heat energy to raise the temperature of 10kg of copper by 1K.

**Question 6**
**Report**

If the fraction of the atoms of a radioactive material left after 120years is 164 $\frac{1}{64}$, what is the half-life of the material? 164

**Answer Details**

The half-life of a radioactive material is the time it takes for half of the atoms in a sample to decay. The fraction of atoms left after a certain number of half-lives can be calculated using the formula: fraction left = (1/2)^(number of half-lives) Let's use this formula to solve the problem. We know that the fraction of atoms left after 120 years is 1/64, which means that: (1/2)^(number of half-lives) = 1/64 To solve for the number of half-lives, we can take the logarithm of both sides: log[(1/2)^(number of half-lives)] = log(1/64) Using the rule that log(a^b) = b*log(a), we can simplify the left side of the equation: number of half-lives * log(1/2) = log(1/64) Dividing both sides by log(1/2), we get: number of half-lives = log(1/64) / log(1/2) Using a calculator or the change of base formula, we can evaluate this expression: number of half-lives = 6 Therefore, the half-life of the material is 120/6 = 20 years.

**Question 7**
**Report**

The inner diameter of a small test tube can be measured accurately using a

**Answer Details**

A vernier caliper is a measuring device used to precisely measure linear dimensions. It is a very useful tool to use when measuring the diameter of a round objects like cylinders because the measuring jaws can be secured on either side of the circumference.

Vernier calipers have both a fixed main scale and a moving vernier scale. The main scale is graduated in either millimetres or tenths of an inch. The vernier scale allows much more precise readings to be taken (usually to the nearest 0.02mm or 0.001 inch) in comparison to a standard ruler (which only measures to th nearest 1mm or 0.25 inch).

The vernier scale was invented by French mathematician Pierre Vernier in 1631. As part of the vernier caliper, it is used together with the main scale, and helps to provide very precise measurements. Vernier calipers usually show either imperial or metric measurements, but some measure in both.

**Question 8**
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A particle of mass M initially at rest splits into two. If one of the particles of mass M1 moves with velocity V1 , the second particle moves with velocity

**Answer Details**

When a particle of mass M splits into two, the total mass is conserved, and so the sum of the masses of the two resulting particles must be equal to M. If one of the particles of mass M1 moves with velocity V1, we can use the law of conservation of momentum to determine the velocity of the second particle. The law of conservation of momentum states that the total momentum of a system of particles remains constant if no external forces act on the system. In this case, the initial momentum of the system is zero, since the particle was initially at rest. After the particle splits, the momentum of the system is the sum of the momenta of the two resulting particles. Let's use the subscript 1 to represent the first particle of mass M1 and the subscript 2 to represent the second particle of mass M-M1. By conservation of momentum, we have: 0 = M1*V1 + (M - M1)*V2 Solving for V2, we get: V2 = -M1/M*(V1) Therefore, the second particle moves in the opposite direction with velocity -M1/M*(V1). This means that the two particles move in opposite directions, with the ratio of their velocities determined by the ratio of their masses. Option (D) in the table shows the correct answer, which is -M1/M*(V1).

**Question 9**
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Which of the following best describes the energy changes which take place when a steam engine drives a generator which lights a lamp?

**Answer Details**

The energy changes that take place when a steam engine drives a generator which lights a lamp can be described as: Heat energy from burning fuel is used to create steam in the boiler of the steam engine. This steam is then used to drive the turbine, which generates kinetic energy as it spins. The kinetic energy is transferred to the generator, which converts it into electrical energy (electricity). The electricity then flows through the wires to the lamp, where it is converted back into light energy, which is what we see. Therefore, the correct option would be: Heat ----> Kinetic ----> Electricity ----> Light

**Question 10**
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A man hears his echo from a nearby hill 2s after he shouted. If the frequency of his voice is 260Hz and the wavelength is 1.29m, how far away is the hill

**Answer Details**

The speed of sound in air is approximately **343 meters per second** at room temperature. The formula for the speed of sound is:

Speed of sound = Frequency × Wavelength

In this problem, we are given the **frequency (260 Hz)** and the **wavelength (1.29 m)** of the sound wave. We can use these values to calculate the speed of sound:

Speed of sound = 260 Hz × 1.29 m =335.4 m/s

Next, we need to use the fact that the man hears his echo **2 seconds** after he shouted. Since the sound wave traveled from the man to the hill and then back to the man, the total distance traveled by the sound wave is twice the distance from the man to the hill. We can use the formula:

Distance = Speed × Time

to calculate the distance from the man to the hill:

Distance = (335.4 m/s) × (2 s/2) =335.4 m

Therefore, the hill is **335.4 meters** away from the man. The answer is option (B), **335.4m**.

**Question 11**
**Report**

Mercury which is spilled onto a glass surface forms ball-like shapes because____.

**Answer Details**

In case of small drops of mercury, the gravitational potential energy is negligible in comparison to the potential energy due to surface tension.Consequently, to keep the drop in equilibrium, the mercury drop’s surface tends to contract so that its surface area will be the least for a sphere and the drops will be spherical.

But in the case of bigger drops of mercury, the potential energy due to gravity is predominant over the potential energy due to surface tension.Consequently, to keep equilibrium , the mercury drop tends to assume minimum potential energy as possible, the drop becomes oval in shape and lower center of gravity.

**Question 12**
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A lead bullet of mass 0.05 kg is fired with a velocity of 200 ms into a lead block of mass 0.95 kg. Given that the lead block can move freely. the final kinetic energy after impact is

**Answer Details**

**Question 13**
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A positively charged rod X is brought near an uncharged metal sphere Y and is then touched by a finger with X still in place. When the finger is removed, the result is that Y has

**Answer Details**

**Question 14**
**Report**

Which of the following statements are TRUE of isotopes?

I. Isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties because they have the same number of electrons

II. Isotopes of elements are normally separated using physical properties

III. Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons in their nuclei

**Answer Details**

The correct answer is "I and III only". Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons in their nuclei, meaning they have the same atomic number and are therefore the same element. Because of this, they have the same chemical properties. However, isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, which means they have different atomic masses. This is why isotopes can be separated using physical properties such as their mass or other characteristics related to their mass.

**Question 15**
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In the diagram shown, If the south-poles of two magnets stroke a steel bar, the polarities at T and V will respectively be

**Answer Details**

**Question 16**
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The process whereby a liquid turns spontaneously into vapour is called

**Answer Details**

The process whereby a liquid turns spontaneously into vapor is called evaporation. Evaporation is the process by which a liquid changes into a gas at a temperature below its boiling point. This happens when the molecules of the liquid gain enough energy to escape from the surface of the liquid into the air as a gas. The rate of evaporation depends on factors such as the temperature, the humidity of the air, and the surface area of the liquid. For example, a shallow pool of water will evaporate faster than a deep one because it has a larger surface area. Boiling, on the other hand, is the process by which a liquid changes into a gas at its boiling point. This happens when the pressure of the gas generated by the boiling liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure. The temperature remains constant during boiling. Regelation and sublimation are different processes altogether. Regelation is the process by which a solid changes into a liquid when it is subjected to pressure. Sublimation is the process by which a solid changes directly into a gas, bypassing the liquid state.

**Question 17**
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What effort will a machine of efficiency 90% apply to a load of 180N if its efforts arm is twice as long as its load arm?

**Answer Details**

**Question 18**
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One of the features of the fission process is that

**Answer Details**

The fission process refers to the splitting of an atomic nucleus into two or more smaller nuclei. One of the key features of the fission process is that it can lead to a chain reaction, where the neutrons released during fission can go on to trigger additional fission reactions. This chain reaction can produce a large amount of energy, as is the case in nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons. Another feature of the fission process is that it typically produces radioactive products. These products can remain radioactive for a long time, which is why there are concerns about the safe disposal of nuclear waste. Additionally, the fission process typically releases neutrons, which can go on to cause further fission reactions. This neutron release is an important aspect of the chain reaction mentioned earlier. Finally, the fission process is accompanied by a small loss of mass, which is converted into energy according to Einstein's famous equation E=mc². This loss of mass is what allows the large amount of energy to be released during a fission reaction.

**Question 19**
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The resistance of a 40W car head lamp, drawing current from a 12V battery is ____.

**Answer Details**

The resistance of a 40W car headlamp can be calculated using Ohm's Law, which states that the current (I) flowing through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage (V) across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance (R) of the conductor. The equation can be written as V = IR. Since the power (P) of the headlamp is given as 40W and the voltage is 12V, we can calculate the current using the equation P = IV. Substituting I = P/V, we get I = 40/12 = 3.33A. Finally, using Ohm's Law, we can calculate the resistance as R = V/I = 12/3.33 = 3.6Ω. So, the resistance of the 40W car headlamp, drawing current from a 12V battery, is 3.6Ω.

**Question 20**
**Report**

Convex mirrors are used as driving mirrors because images formed are

**Answer Details**

Convex mirrors are used as driving mirrors because the images formed by them are "erect, virtual, and diminished." Let me explain what these terms mean: - Erect: It means that the image appears upright, just like the actual object. This is important for a driving mirror because it allows the driver to perceive the correct orientation of the vehicles behind them. - Virtual: It means that the image appears to be behind the mirror, and not in front of it. This is also important for a driving mirror because it allows the driver to see a wider field of view without having to turn their head. - Diminished: It means that the image is smaller than the actual object. This is important for a driving mirror because it allows the driver to see a larger area behind them while still fitting it within the mirror's frame. Overall, these properties make convex mirrors ideal for use as driving mirrors as they provide the driver with an accurate view of the vehicles behind them without sacrificing their field of view.

**Question 21**
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Which of the following is true of an electrical charge?

**Answer Details**

The correct answer is option D: "All of the above." An electrical charge refers to the presence of an excess or deficit of electrons in an atom or molecule. In this context, positive charge means a deficit of electrons, whereas negative charge means an excess of electrons. Electric current refers to the flow of charged particles, typically electrons, through a conductor. Therefore, an electric current means the movement of electrons. In summary, all of the given options are true of an electrical charge, and they all relate to the behavior of electrons in an electrically charged system.

**Question 22**
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In the diagram given if the atmospheric pressure is 760mm, the pressure in the chamber G Is

**Answer Details**

**Question 23**
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The density of 400cm3 of palm oil was 0.9gcm-3 before frying. If the density of the oil was 0.6gcm-3 after frying, assuming no loss of oil due to spilling, its new volume was?

**Answer Details**

The density of a substance is defined as its mass per unit volume. Therefore, the mass of the palm oil before frying was: Mass = Density x Volume = 0.9 g/cm³ x 400 cm³ = 360 g After frying, the mass of the palm oil remains the same, but its density changes to 0.6 g/cm³. Therefore, the new volume of the palm oil can be calculated by rearranging the density formula: Volume = Mass / Density = 360 g / 0.6 g/cm³ = 600 cm³ So the new volume of the palm oil after frying is 600 cm³. is the correct answer.

**Question 24**
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Natural radioactivity consists of the emission of

**Answer Details**

Radioactive decay releases different types of energetic emissions. The three most common types of radioactive emissions are alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays.

**Question 25**
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An electric heating coil rated at 1KW is used to heat 2kg of water for 2 minutes. The initial water temperature is 30o $o$C. Taking the specific heat of the water as 4,000Jkg −1 $-1$ and neglecting that of the container, the final water temperature is

**Answer Details**

To determine the final temperature of the water, we can use the formula: Q = mcΔT where Q is the heat transferred, m is the mass of the water, c is the specific heat capacity of water, and ΔT is the change in temperature. We know that the power of the electric heating coil is 1KW, which means it transfers 1000 Joules of energy per second. In 2 minutes, or 120 seconds, it transfers 120,000 Joules of energy to the water. The mass of the water is given as 2kg and the specific heat capacity of water is 4000 J/kg°C. We can assume that the initial temperature of the water is 30°C. Using the formula, we can solve for the change in temperature: 120,000 J = (2 kg)(4000 J/kg°C)(ΔT) ΔT = 15°C Therefore, the final temperature of the water is 30°C + 15°C = 45°C. So, the final water temperature is 45.0oC.

**Question 26**
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Which of the following phenomena cannot be explained by the molecular theory of matter?

**Answer Details**

Conduction: the flow of internal energy from a region of higher temperature to lower temperature

Convection: heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids

Expansion: the action of becoming larger or more extensive

**Question 27**
**Report**

An object weighs 30N in air and 21N in water. The weight of the object when completely immersed in a liquid of relative density 1.4 is

**Answer Details**

Weight of water displaced = upthrust = 30 - 21 = 9N

Mass of water displaced = 910
$\frac{9}{10}$ = 0.9kg

Volume of object = 9 × 10−4
$-4$m3
$3$

= (9 × 10−4
$-4$) (1.4 ×103)

= 1.26kg = 12N

30 - 12.6 = 17.4N

**Question 28**
**Report**

An object moves in a circular path of radius 0.5m with a speed of 1ms−1 $-1$. What is its angular velocity?

**Answer Details**

Angular velocity is a measure of how fast an object is rotating around a center point. It's usually measured in radians per second (rad/s). To calculate angular velocity, we use the formula: angular velocity = linear velocity / radius. In this case, the linear velocity is 1 m/s, and the radius is 0.5 m. So, the angular velocity would be: 1 m/s / 0.5 m = 2 rad/s Therefore, the answer is 2 rad/s or 2rads^-1

**Question 29**
**Report**

When a known standard resistor of 2.0 is connected to the 0.0cm end of a meter bridge, the balance point is found to be at 55.0cm. What is the value of the unknown resistor?

**Answer Details**

A meter bridge is an instrument used to measure the unknown resistance of a conductor. The meter bridge consists of a long resistance wire AB of uniform cross-sectional area and a battery of known voltage connected across its ends. A galvanometer is connected across a point C on the wire, which is called the null point or balance point.

When a known standard resistor of 2.0 ohms is connected to the 0.0cm end of the meter bridge wire, the balance point is found to be at 55.0cm. This means that the resistance of the unknown resistor is equal to the resistance of a portion of the meter bridge wire between the 0.0cm and the 55.0cm point.

To find the value of the unknown resistor, we can use the principle of the Wheatstone bridge, which states that the ratio of the resistances in the two arms of a balanced bridge is equal.

Let R be the resistance of the unknown resistor, then we have:

R/2.0 = (100 - 55.0)/55.0

Simplifying this expression, we get:

R = 2.0 x (100 - 55.0)/55.0

R = 1.64 ohms

Therefore, the value of the unknown resistor is 1.64 ohms.

**Question 30**
**Report**

A narrow beam of white light can be split up into different colours by a glass prism. The correct explanation is that

**Answer Details**

The correct explanation for why a narrow beam of white light can be split up into different colors by a glass prism is that different colors of white light travel with different speeds in glass. White light is made up of different colors with different wavelengths, ranging from violet to red. When a narrow beam of white light passes through a glass prism, the different colors refract at slightly different angles due to the fact that their wavelengths are different. This causes the different colors to spread out and form a spectrum. The amount of refraction that occurs depends on the speed of light in the medium. Different colors of light have different speeds in glass due to the fact that their wavelengths are different. This means that they will refract at different angles as they pass through the glass prism, causing them to spread out. So, the correct explanation for why a narrow beam of white light can be split up into different colors by a glass prism is that different colors of white light travel with different speeds in glass. Therefore, is the correct explanation. is incorrect because it describes what white light is made up of, but does not explain how it is split up into colors by a prism. is incorrect because a prism does not have all the colors of white light, but rather it separates the colors that are already present in white light. is incorrect because total internal reflection occurs when light is completely reflected back into the same medium, which is not what happens when white light is split up by a prism.

**Question 31**
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A car traveled at a uniform speed of 100km/h, spends 15m moving from point A to point B along its route. The distance between A and B is

**Answer Details**

To calculate the distance between point A and point B, we can use the formula: Distance = Speed x Time where the speed is given as 100 km/h and the time is given as 15 minutes, which we need to convert to hours. 1 hour = 60 minutes, so 15 minutes = 15/60 hours = 0.25 hours. Now, we can substitute these values into the formula: Distance = 100 km/h x 0.25 h = 25 km Therefore, the distance between point A and point B is 25 km. is the correct answer.

**Question 32**
**Report**

If the focal length of a camera is 20cm, the distance from the film at which the lens must be set to produce a sharp image of 100cm away is

**Answer Details**

F = 20cm

V = 100cm

U = ?

1U
$\frac{1}{U}$ + 1V
$\frac{1}{V}$ = 1F
$\frac{1}{F}$

120
$\frac{1}{20}$ + 1100
$\frac{1}{100}$ = 1F
$\frac{1}{F}$

5+1100
$\frac{5+1}{100}$ = 1F
$\frac{1}{F}$

F = 1006
$\frac{100}{6}$

= 16.7cm

= 17cm

**Question 33**
**Report**

For what values of F and ? will the forces shown in the diagram below be in equilibrium.

**Answer Details**

Resolve vertically, 40cos? = 20, ? = 60o
$o$

Resolve horizontally, f = 40sin? = 40sin60o
$o$

= 40(?32
$\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}$)

= 20?3 N

**Question 34**
**Report**

The linear expansivity of brass is 2 x 10?5
$?5$ C?1
$?1$. If the volume of a piece of brass is 15.00cm at 0°C, what is the volume at 100°C

**Answer Details**

The linear expansivity of brass is given as 2 x 10^-5 /°C. This means that for every 1°C increase in temperature, the brass expands by 2 x 10^-5 of its original size. To find the new volume of the brass at 100°C, we need to take into account the expansion in all three dimensions (length, width, and height). Since the expansivity given is for length only, we need to find the expansivity in all three dimensions by multiplying it by 3. The expansivity in all three dimensions is: 3 x (2 x 10^-5 /°C) = 6 x 10^-5 /°C To find the new volume, we can use the formula: Vf = Vi (1 + αΔT) where Vf is the final volume, Vi is the initial volume, α is the expansivity in all three dimensions, and ΔT is the change in temperature. Plugging in the values, we get: Vf = 15.00 cm3 (1 + (6 x 10^-5 /°C) x (100°C - 0°C)) Vf = 15.09 cm3 Therefore, the volume of the brass at 100°C is 15.09 cm3.

**Question 35**
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Which of the following instruments is most suitable for measuring the outside diameter of a narrow pipe in a few millimeters in diameter?

**Answer Details**

The most suitable instrument for measuring the outside diameter of a narrow pipe in a few millimeters in diameter is a micrometer screw gauge. A micrometer screw gauge is a precision measuring instrument that can accurately measure small dimensions with high accuracy. It has a spindle that moves towards an anvil and a scale that indicates the measurement. The spindle moves in response to a small rotation of the thimble, allowing for precise and sensitive measurements. In contrast, a pair of calipers or a meter rule may not be accurate enough for measuring such small dimensions, and a tape rule may not be able to fit inside the narrow pipe. Therefore, a micrometer screw gauge is the most suitable option for measuring the outside diameter of a narrow pipe in a few millimeters in diameter.

**Question 36**
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In a series R-L-C circuit at resonance, the voltages across the resistor and the inductor are 30V and 40V respectively. What is the voltage across the capacitor?

**Answer Details**

**Question 37**
**Report**

Which of the following does NOT describe the Image formed by a plane minor?

**Answer Details**

The option that does NOT describe the image formed by a plane mirror is "Magnified". When an object is placed in front of a plane mirror, the image formed is: 1. Erect: The orientation of the object in the mirror is the same as the orientation of the object in real life. For example, if you raise your right hand in front of a plane mirror, the image in the mirror will also show your right hand raised. 2. Laterally inverted: The image formed in the mirror is flipped horizontally, which means that the left side of the object appears on the right side of the image and vice versa. For example, if you wear a shirt with the letter "H" on it and look at it in a plane mirror, the image will show the letter "H" flipped horizontally. 3. Same distance from the mirror as object: The image formed in the mirror is located behind the mirror at the same distance as the object is located in front of the mirror. For example, if you stand 1 meter away from a plane mirror, the image of yourself will also be located 1 meter away from the mirror, behind the mirror. 4. NOT magnified: The image formed in the plane mirror is of the same size as the object, which means that there is no magnification or reduction in the size of the image. For example, if you stand in front of a plane mirror with a height of 1 meter, the image of yourself in the mirror will also have a height of 1 meter. Therefore, the correct answer is "Magnified", as the image formed by a plane mirror is not magnified.

**Question 38**
**Report**

Which of the following concepts is not an evidence of the particles nature of matter?

**Answer Details**

The particle nature of matter refers to the idea that matter is made up of tiny particles that are constantly moving. Diffusion, Brownian motion, and crystallization are all examples of phenomena that can be explained by the particle nature of matter. However, diffraction is not an evidence of the particle nature of matter. Diffraction is a phenomenon that occurs when waves encounter an obstacle or a slit, causing them to spread out and interfere with each other. While particles can also exhibit diffraction, this is a property of waves and is not specific to particles. In summary, diffusion, Brownian motion, and crystallization are all evidences of the particle nature of matter, but diffraction is not.

**Question 39**
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The tendency of a body to remain at rest when a force is applied to it is called.

**Answer Details**

The tendency of a body to remain at rest or to continue moving with a constant velocity (in a straight line at a constant speed) when no force is acting on it is called inertia. Inertia is a property of matter, and the amount of inertia depends on the mass of an object. Inertia can also be thought of as a resistance to changes in motion, meaning that an object at rest will tend to stay at rest, and an object in motion will tend to stay in motion unless acted upon by an external force. This property of inertia is what makes it difficult to start, stop, or change the direction of motion of an object. The force required to overcome the inertia of an object depends on the mass of the object and the magnitude of the acceleration desired. Therefore, the greater the mass of an object, the greater its inertia, and the more force required to change its motion.

**Question 40**
**Report**

The energy needed to move a unit positive charge around a complete electric circuit is called the

**Answer Details**

The energy needed to move a unit positive charge around a complete electric circuit is called the "electromotive force", also known as "emf". This is because the emf is what drives the flow of electric charge, or current, around the circuit. Think of it like a battery in a flashlight. The battery provides the emf that drives the flow of electric current through the wires and the light bulb. Without the emf from the battery, the electric charges wouldn't be able to flow and the light wouldn't turn on. The other answer options, such as electric potential difference and electric energy, are related to the emf but don't specifically refer to the energy needed to move a unit positive charge around a circuit. Kinetic energy, on the other hand, is not related to the movement of electric charges around a circuit at all.

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