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**Question 1**
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The pitch of an acoustic device can be increased by

**Answer Details**

The pitch of an acoustic device refers to the perceived highness or lowness of a sound, and is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. To increase the pitch of an acoustic device, you need to increase the frequency of the sound wave. This can be done by increasing the number of vibrations per second that the device produces. So, the correct answer is to "increase the frequency".

**Question 2**
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Temperature is the property of a body which is proportional to the ____.

**Answer Details**

Temperature is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a body. This means that as the average kinetic energy of the molecules increases, so does the temperature. Think about it like this: the hotter an object, the more energy its molecules have. This energy is what makes the molecules move faster, and therefore, the temperature of the object increases. The average kinetic energy of the molecules is a better measure of temperature than the maximum speed of the molecules because temperature is a measure of the overall energy distribution, not just the energy of a single molecule.

**Question 3**
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Which of the following has the lowest internal resistance when new?

**Answer Details**

Among the given options, the Accumulator has the lowest internal resistance when new. Internal resistance is the resistance that a battery or cell provides to the flow of electric current within itself. Lower internal resistance means that the battery can supply more current to an external circuit without losing much of its own energy as heat. An Accumulator, also known as a rechargeable battery, is designed to be charged and discharged multiple times. It has a relatively low internal resistance when new, meaning it can provide a higher current than the other cells listed while wasting less energy internally as heat. A Leclanche cell and Daniell cell are primary cells, meaning they are designed to be used once and discarded. They have higher internal resistance compared to the accumulator, which limits their ability to supply high currents. A Torch battery, also known as a dry cell, is also a primary cell and has a higher internal resistance than the accumulator. It is commonly used in small electronic devices and has a longer shelf life than Leclanche and Daniell cells. In summary, an Accumulator has the lowest internal resistance when new, which makes it an ideal choice for applications requiring high current delivery such as electric vehicles, power tools, and renewable energy systems.

**Question 4**
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The product of force and time is?

**Answer Details**

The product of force and time is known as impulse. Impulse can be defined as the change in momentum that an object experiences as a result of a force being applied to it over a period of time. In simpler terms, impulse is the "push" that an object receives from a force acting on it for a certain amount of time. The more force applied, or the longer the time the force is applied, the greater the impulse and the greater the change in momentum of the object. It's important to note that impulse is a vector quantity, meaning it has both magnitude and direction. Impulse is a measure of the ability of a force to cause an object to change its velocity, and can be used to explain many phenomena in physics, such as why a heavy object is harder to stop than a lighter one, or why a soccer ball changes direction when it is kicked.

**Question 5**
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Which of the following diagrams represents correctly an n-p-n transistor?

i.

ii

iii

**Question 6**
**Report**

The linear expansivity of brass is 2 x 10?5
$?5$ C?1
$?1$. If the volume of a piece of brass is 15.00cm at 0°C, what is the volume at 100°C

**Answer Details**

The linear expansivity of brass is given as 2 x 10^-5 /°C. This means that for every 1°C increase in temperature, the brass expands by 2 x 10^-5 of its original size. To find the new volume of the brass at 100°C, we need to take into account the expansion in all three dimensions (length, width, and height). Since the expansivity given is for length only, we need to find the expansivity in all three dimensions by multiplying it by 3. The expansivity in all three dimensions is: 3 x (2 x 10^-5 /°C) = 6 x 10^-5 /°C To find the new volume, we can use the formula: Vf = Vi (1 + αΔT) where Vf is the final volume, Vi is the initial volume, α is the expansivity in all three dimensions, and ΔT is the change in temperature. Plugging in the values, we get: Vf = 15.00 cm3 (1 + (6 x 10^-5 /°C) x (100°C - 0°C)) Vf = 15.09 cm3 Therefore, the volume of the brass at 100°C is 15.09 cm3.

**Question 7**
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In the diagram given the hanging mass m2 is adjusted until m1 is on the verge of sliding. The coefficient of static

**Answer Details**

I think the correct option is C (m2m1 $\frac{{m}_{2}}{{m}_{1}}$). The coefficient of friction is a ratio of two forces and hence g will cancel out.

**Question 8**
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The electrochemical equivalent of silver is 0.0012g/C. If 36.0g of silver is to be deposited by electrolysis on a surface by passing a steady current for 5mins, the current must be?

**Answer Details**

The electrochemical equivalent of silver is a measure of the amount of silver that is deposited on a surface per unit of charge. In this case, the electrochemical equivalent of silver is 0.0012 grams per Coulomb of charge. To deposit 36.0 grams of silver by electrolysis, we need to know the amount of charge that must be passed through the solution. The amount of charge is given by: Q = m/z where m is the mass of silver to be deposited, 0.0012 is the electrochemical equivalent of silver, and z is the charge on one mole of electrons (z = 1 for a single electron). So, the amount of charge required is: Q = 36.0 g / 0.0012 g/C = 30000 C The current, I, is given by: I = Q / t where t is the time for which the current is flowing. In this case, t = 5 minutes. So, the current required is: I = 30000 C / (5 x 60 s) = 100 A Therefore, the current must be 100 Amperes.

**Question 9**
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Calculate the effective capacitance of the circuit in the diagram given

**Answer Details**

The three 2uf capacitors are in parallel to each other so u add them like this

2uf+2uf+2uf=6uf

So u have three capacitors in series

6uf 2uf and 3uf

They are in series so

1/C= 1/6+1/3=1/2

C=2uf

Then the same thing with the last two capay

1/2+1/2=1uf

Thanks

**Question 10**
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The resistance of a 40W car head lamp, drawing current from a 12V battery is ____.

**Answer Details**

The resistance of a 40W car headlamp can be calculated using Ohm's Law, which states that the current (I) flowing through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage (V) across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance (R) of the conductor. The equation can be written as V = IR. Since the power (P) of the headlamp is given as 40W and the voltage is 12V, we can calculate the current using the equation P = IV. Substituting I = P/V, we get I = 40/12 = 3.33A. Finally, using Ohm's Law, we can calculate the resistance as R = V/I = 12/3.33 = 3.6Ω. So, the resistance of the 40W car headlamp, drawing current from a 12V battery, is 3.6Ω.

**Question 11**
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The inner diameter of a small test tube can be measured accurately using a

**Answer Details**

A vernier caliper is a measuring device used to precisely measure linear dimensions. It is a very useful tool to use when measuring the diameter of a round objects like cylinders because the measuring jaws can be secured on either side of the circumference.

Vernier calipers have both a fixed main scale and a moving vernier scale. The main scale is graduated in either millimetres or tenths of an inch. The vernier scale allows much more precise readings to be taken (usually to the nearest 0.02mm or 0.001 inch) in comparison to a standard ruler (which only measures to th nearest 1mm or 0.25 inch).

The vernier scale was invented by French mathematician Pierre Vernier in 1631. As part of the vernier caliper, it is used together with the main scale, and helps to provide very precise measurements. Vernier calipers usually show either imperial or metric measurements, but some measure in both.

**Question 12**
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The density of 400cm3 of palm oil was 0.9gcm-3 before frying. If the density of the oil was 0.6gcm-3 after frying, assuming no loss of oil due to spilling, its new volume was?

**Answer Details**

The density of a substance is defined as its mass per unit volume. Therefore, the mass of the palm oil before frying was: Mass = Density x Volume = 0.9 g/cm³ x 400 cm³ = 360 g After frying, the mass of the palm oil remains the same, but its density changes to 0.6 g/cm³. Therefore, the new volume of the palm oil can be calculated by rearranging the density formula: Volume = Mass / Density = 360 g / 0.6 g/cm³ = 600 cm³ So the new volume of the palm oil after frying is 600 cm³. is the correct answer.

**Question 13**
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Which of the following phenomena cannot be explained by the molecular theory of matter?

**Answer Details**

Conduction: the flow of internal energy from a region of higher temperature to lower temperature

Convection: heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids

Expansion: the action of becoming larger or more extensive

**Question 14**
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In a series R-L-C circuit at resonance, the voltages across the resistor and the inductor are 30V and 40V respectively. What is the voltage across the capacitor?

**Question 15**
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To keep a vehicle moving at a constant speed V requires power P from the engine. The force provided by the engine is

**Answer Details**

The force provided by the engine to keep a vehicle moving at a constant speed is proportional to the power (P) required from the engine. This power is proportional to the product of the speed (V) and force (P), so the relationship can be expressed as P = kV, where k is a proportionality constant.

**Question 16**
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An electric heating coil rated at 1KW is used to heat 2kg of water for 2 minutes. The initial water temperature is 30o $o$C. Taking the specific heat of the water as 4,000Jkg −1 $-1$ and neglecting that of the container, the final water temperature is

**Answer Details**

To determine the final temperature of the water, we can use the formula: Q = mcΔT where Q is the heat transferred, m is the mass of the water, c is the specific heat capacity of water, and ΔT is the change in temperature. We know that the power of the electric heating coil is 1KW, which means it transfers 1000 Joules of energy per second. In 2 minutes, or 120 seconds, it transfers 120,000 Joules of energy to the water. The mass of the water is given as 2kg and the specific heat capacity of water is 4000 J/kg°C. We can assume that the initial temperature of the water is 30°C. Using the formula, we can solve for the change in temperature: 120,000 J = (2 kg)(4000 J/kg°C)(ΔT) ΔT = 15°C Therefore, the final temperature of the water is 30°C + 15°C = 45°C. So, the final water temperature is 45.0oC.

**Question 17**
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The force between the molecules of a liquid in contact with that of a solid is?

**Answer Details**

(ii) Adhesion : The force of attraction between unlike molecules, i.e. between the molecules of different liquids or between the molecules of a liquid and those of a solid body when they are in contact with each other, is known as the force of adhesion. This force enables two different liquids to adhere to each other or a liquid to adhere to a solid body or surface.

**Question 18**
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When a known standard resistor of 2.0 is connected to the 0.0cm end of a metre bridge, the balance point is found to be at 55.0cm

**Answer Details**

A meter bridge is an instrument used to measure the unknown resistance of a conductor. The meter bridge consists of a long resistance wire AB of uniform cross-sectional area and a battery of known voltage connected across its ends. A galvanometer is connected across a point C on the wire, which is called the null point or balance point. When a known standard resistor of 2.0 ohms is connected to the 0.0cm end of the meter bridge wire, the balance point is found to be at 55.0cm. This means that the resistance of the unknown resistor is equal to the resistance of a portion of the meter bridge wire between the 0.0cm and the 55.0cm point. To find the value of the unknown resistor, we can use the principle of the Wheatstone bridge, which states that the ratio of the resistances in the two arms of a balanced bridge is equal. Let R be the resistance of the unknown resistor, then we have: R/2.0 = (100 - 55.0)/55.0 Simplifying this expression, we get: R = 2.0 x (100 - 55.0)/55.0 R = 1.64 ohms Therefore, the value of the unknown resistor is 1.64 ohms.

**Question 19**
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Water of mass 150g at 60o $o$c is added to 300g of water at 20o $o$c and the mixture is well stirred. Calculate the temperature of the mixture.(neglect heat losses to the surroundings)

**Answer Details**

To solve this problem, we can use the principle of conservation of energy, which states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or converted from one form to another. In this case, the energy transferred is in the form of heat. We can use the formula: Q = m*c*(ΔT) where Q is the heat transferred, m is the mass of the water, c is the specific heat capacity of water, and ΔT is the change in temperature. First, we can calculate the heat transferred from the hot water to the cold water: Q1 = 150g * 4.18 J/(g°C) * (60°C - T) Q1 = 627 * (60 - T) where T is the temperature of the mixture. Next, we can calculate the heat transferred from the cold water to reach the final temperature of the mixture: Q2 = 300g * 4.18 J/(g°C) * (T - 20°C) Q2 = 1254 * (T - 20) Since the heat transferred between the two water samples must be equal, we can set Q1 equal to Q2 and solve for T: 627 * (60 - T) = 1254 * (T - 20) 37620 - 627T = 1254T - 25080 1881T = 62760 T = 33.4°C Therefore, the temperature of the mixture is approximately 33°C. Answer: 33°C

**Question 20**
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The critical angle for light travelling from a transparent medium to air s measured as 340. The refractive index of the medium is

**Answer Details**

The critical angle is the angle of incidence at which light is just able to pass through the interface between two media and not reflect back. When light travels from a medium with a higher refractive index to a medium with a lower refractive index, it slows down and bends towards the normal. If the angle of incidence is increased, the light will eventually reach a point where it will not be able to escape the higher index medium and will be totally reflected back. This is the critical angle. The formula for the critical angle can be expressed as follows: sin(θc) = n2/n1 Where θc is the critical angle, n1 is the refractive index of the first medium, and n2 is the refractive index of the second medium. In this case, the first medium is the transparent medium and the second medium is air, which has a refractive index of approximately 1. By substituting the value of sin(θc) with the value of 340, and n2 with 1, we can solve for n1. sin(340) = n1/1 n1 = 1/sin(340) The value of n1 calculated using this formula is approximately 1.79, which means that the refractive index of the transparent medium is 1.79.

**Question 21**
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A ball of mass 800g moving horizontally with a speed of 5m/s hits a vertical wall and rebounds with the same speed. The impulse experienced by the ball is?

**Answer Details**

The impulse experienced by the ball can be calculated using the principle of conservation of momentum, which states that the total momentum before the collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision. In this case, the momentum of the ball before the collision is: p1 = m * v1 where m is the mass of the ball and v1 is its velocity before the collision. Substituting the values given in the problem, we get: p1 = 0.8 kg * 5 m/s = 4 kg m/s After the collision, the ball rebounds with the same speed but in the opposite direction, so its velocity after the collision is: v2 = -5 m/s The momentum of the ball after the collision is: p2 = m * v2 Substituting the values, we get: p2 = 0.8 kg * (-5 m/s) = -4 kg m/s The negative sign indicates that the direction of the momentum is opposite to that before the collision. The change in momentum of the ball is given by: Δp = p2 - p1 Substituting the values, we get: Δp = (-4 kg m/s) - (4 kg m/s) = -8 kg m/s The negative sign indicates that the impulse experienced by the ball is in the opposite direction to its initial momentum, which is the direction of the wall. Therefore, the impulse experienced by the ball is 8 kg m/s. Therefore, the correct option is: 8kgm/s.

**Question 22**
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Mercury which is spilled onto a glass surface forms ball-like shapes because____.

**Answer Details**

In case of small drops of mercury, the gravitational potential energy is negligible in comparison to the potential energy due to surface tension.Consequently, to keep the drop in equilibrium, the mercury drop’s surface tends to contract so that its surface area will be the least for a sphere and the drops will be spherical.

But in the case of bigger drops of mercury, the potential energy due to gravity is predominant over the potential energy due to surface tension.Consequently, to keep equilibrium , the mercury drop tends to assume minimum potential energy as possible, the drop becomes oval in shape and lower center of gravity.

**Question 23**
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Which of the following is true of an electrical charge?

**Answer Details**

The correct answer is option D: "All of the above." An electrical charge refers to the presence of an excess or deficit of electrons in an atom or molecule. In this context, positive charge means a deficit of electrons, whereas negative charge means an excess of electrons. Electric current refers to the flow of charged particles, typically electrons, through a conductor. Therefore, an electric current means the movement of electrons. In summary, all of the given options are true of an electrical charge, and they all relate to the behavior of electrons in an electrically charged system.

**Question 24**
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In the diagram given if the atmospheric pressure is 760mm, the pressure in the chamber G Is

**Question 25**
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The energy needed to move a unit positive charge around a complete electric circuit is called the

**Answer Details**

The energy needed to move a unit positive charge around a complete electric circuit is called the "electromotive force", also known as "emf". This is because the emf is what drives the flow of electric charge, or current, around the circuit. Think of it like a battery in a flashlight. The battery provides the emf that drives the flow of electric current through the wires and the light bulb. Without the emf from the battery, the electric charges wouldn't be able to flow and the light wouldn't turn on. The other answer options, such as electric potential difference and electric energy, are related to the emf but don't specifically refer to the energy needed to move a unit positive charge around a circuit. Kinetic energy, on the other hand, is not related to the movement of electric charges around a circuit at all.

**Question 26**
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Electrical power is transmitted at a high voltage rather than a low voltage because the amount of energy loss is due to

**Answer Details**

The primary reason that power is transmitted at high voltages is to increase efficiency. As electricity is transmitted over long distances, there are inherent energy losses along the way. High voltage transmission minimizes the amount of power lost as electricity flows from one location to the next. How? The higher the voltage, the lower the current. The lower the current, the lower the resistance losses in the conductors. And when resistance losses are low, energy losses are low also. Electrical engineers consider factors such as the power being transmitted and the distance required for transmission when determining the optimal transmission voltage

**Question 27**
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A force of 5N acts at a point Y on a rod XYZ as shown in this diagram. If XYZ is 2m, what is the moment of the force about point X?

**Answer Details**

To find the moment of the force about point X, we need to first understand what moment is. Moment is the turning effect of a force around a pivot point. It is calculated by multiplying the force by the perpendicular distance between the pivot point and the line of action of the force. In this case, the force of 5N is acting on the rod at point Y. To find the moment of this force about point X, we need to find the perpendicular distance between point X and the line of action of the force. From the diagram, we can see that the perpendicular distance between point X and the line of action of the force is 2m (the length of the rod). So, the moment of the force about point X is: Moment = force x perpendicular distance = 5N x 2m = 10Nm Therefore, the correct answer is: 10Nm.

**Question 28**
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The photo cell works on the principle of the

**Answer Details**

The photocell works on the principle of the emission of electrons by incident radiation. In simple terms, a photocell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy. It does this by using a material (such as silicon) that releases electrons when it is exposed to light. These electrons can then be collected and used to produce a current, which can be used to power an electrical device. The more light that hits the photocell, the more electrons are released and the greater the electrical current.

**Question 29**
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A particle of mass M initially at rest splits into two. If one of the particles of mass M1 moves with velocity V1 , the second particle moves with velocity

**Answer Details**

When a particle of mass M splits into two, the total mass is conserved, and so the sum of the masses of the two resulting particles must be equal to M. If one of the particles of mass M1 moves with velocity V1, we can use the law of conservation of momentum to determine the velocity of the second particle. The law of conservation of momentum states that the total momentum of a system of particles remains constant if no external forces act on the system. In this case, the initial momentum of the system is zero, since the particle was initially at rest. After the particle splits, the momentum of the system is the sum of the momenta of the two resulting particles. Let's use the subscript 1 to represent the first particle of mass M1 and the subscript 2 to represent the second particle of mass M-M1. By conservation of momentum, we have: 0 = M1*V1 + (M - M1)*V2 Solving for V2, we get: V2 = -M1/M*(V1) Therefore, the second particle moves in the opposite direction with velocity -M1/M*(V1). This means that the two particles move in opposite directions, with the ratio of their velocities determined by the ratio of their masses. Option (D) in the table shows the correct answer, which is -M1/M*(V1).

**Question 30**
**Report**

In homes, electrical appliances and lamps are connected in parallel because

**Question 31**
**Report**

An object moves in a circular path of radius 0.5m with a speed of 1ms−1 $-1$. What is its angular velocity?

**Answer Details**

Angular velocity is a measure of how fast an object is rotating around a center point. It's usually measured in radians per second (rad/s). To calculate angular velocity, we use the formula: angular velocity = linear velocity / radius. In this case, the linear velocity is 1 m/s, and the radius is 0.5 m. So, the angular velocity would be: 1 m/s / 0.5 m = 2 rad/s Therefore, the answer is 2 rad/s or 2rads^-1

**Question 32**
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Which of the following concepts is not an evidence of the particles nature of matter?

**Answer Details**

The particle nature of matter refers to the idea that matter is made up of tiny particles that are constantly moving. Diffusion, Brownian motion, and crystallization are all examples of phenomena that can be explained by the particle nature of matter. However, diffraction is not an evidence of the particle nature of matter. Diffraction is a phenomenon that occurs when waves encounter an obstacle or a slit, causing them to spread out and interfere with each other. While particles can also exhibit diffraction, this is a property of waves and is not specific to particles. In summary, diffusion, Brownian motion, and crystallization are all evidences of the particle nature of matter, but diffraction is not.

**Question 33**
**Report**

What type of reaction is represented by the following scheme?

21X ${}_{1}^{2}X$ + 21Y ${}_{1}^{2}Y$ -----> 32Z ${}_{2}^{3}Z$ + 01n ${}_{1}^{0}n$ + energy

**Answer Details**

The type of reaction represented by the given scheme is a nuclear fission reaction. Nuclear fission is a process where a heavy nucleus is split into smaller nuclei with the release of energy. In the given scheme, a heavy element X is split into two lighter elements, Y and Z, along with the release of energy and some neutrons (n). In a nuclear fission reaction, a neutron is usually absorbed by the nucleus of the heavy element, which then becomes unstable and splits into two smaller nuclei and some neutrons. These neutrons can then go on to split other heavy nuclei, resulting in a chain reaction. In the given scheme, the release of energy and the presence of neutrons suggest that it is a fission reaction. Moreover, the scheme depicts the process of splitting a heavy element into two lighter elements, which is a characteristic of a fission reaction. Therefore, the type of reaction represented by the given scheme is a nuclear fission reaction.

**Question 34**
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In the diagram shown, If the south-poles of two magnets stroke a steel bar, the polarities at T and V will respectively be

**Question 35**
**Report**

Convex mirrors are used as driving mirrors because images formed are

**Answer Details**

Convex mirrors are used as driving mirrors because the images formed by them are "erect, virtual, and diminished." Let me explain what these terms mean: - Erect: It means that the image appears upright, just like the actual object. This is important for a driving mirror because it allows the driver to perceive the correct orientation of the vehicles behind them. - Virtual: It means that the image appears to be behind the mirror, and not in front of it. This is also important for a driving mirror because it allows the driver to see a wider field of view without having to turn their head. - Diminished: It means that the image is smaller than the actual object. This is important for a driving mirror because it allows the driver to see a larger area behind them while still fitting it within the mirror's frame. Overall, these properties make convex mirrors ideal for use as driving mirrors as they provide the driver with an accurate view of the vehicles behind them without sacrificing their field of view.

**Question 36**
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Cathode rays are

**Answer Details**

Cathode rays are streams of electrons. They were first discovered by scientists experimenting with vacuum tubes, and they observed that a glowing beam of particles traveled from the negatively charged electrode (the cathode) to the positively charged electrode (the anode). These particles were found to have a negative charge, which was later identified as electrons. Cathode rays played an important role in the development of electronics and the understanding of atomic structure.

**Question 37**
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Palm oil from a bottle flows out more easily after it has been heated because the

**Answer Details**

Molecules cannot be given energy during the heating and the molecules of oil cannot force each other out

**Question 38**
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A car traveled at a uniform speed of 100km/h, spends 15m moving from point A to point B along its route. The distance between A and B is

**Answer Details**

To calculate the distance between point A and point B, we can use the formula: Distance = Speed x Time where the speed is given as 100 km/h and the time is given as 15 minutes, which we need to convert to hours. 1 hour = 60 minutes, so 15 minutes = 15/60 hours = 0.25 hours. Now, we can substitute these values into the formula: Distance = 100 km/h x 0.25 h = 25 km Therefore, the distance between point A and point B is 25 km. is the correct answer.

**Question 39**
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The process whereby a liquid turns spontaneously into vapour is called

**Answer Details**

The process whereby a liquid turns spontaneously into vapor is called evaporation. Evaporation is the process by which a liquid changes into a gas at a temperature below its boiling point. This happens when the molecules of the liquid gain enough energy to escape from the surface of the liquid into the air as a gas. The rate of evaporation depends on factors such as the temperature, the humidity of the air, and the surface area of the liquid. For example, a shallow pool of water will evaporate faster than a deep one because it has a larger surface area. Boiling, on the other hand, is the process by which a liquid changes into a gas at its boiling point. This happens when the pressure of the gas generated by the boiling liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure. The temperature remains constant during boiling. Regelation and sublimation are different processes altogether. Regelation is the process by which a solid changes into a liquid when it is subjected to pressure. Sublimation is the process by which a solid changes directly into a gas, bypassing the liquid state.

**Question 40**
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Shadows and eclipses result from the

**Answer Details**

The rectilinear propagation of light means that light travels in straight lines as a wave. This can be observed in the well-defined shadows formed when an object blocks a light source and through the use of a pinhole camera.

According to Sudipa Sarkar, the formation of shadows with sharp edges demonstrates the rectilinear propagation of light, i.e. The fact that light travels in straight line. When an opaque obstacle is placed between a source of light and a screen, a shadow of the obstacle is formed on the screen. The kind of shadow depends on the size of the source of light. If it is a point source (light from a small hole), the shadow obtained is a region of total darkness, called umbra.

If an extended source of light, e.g. a bulb, is used, the umbra is surrounded by a region of partial darkness, called penumbra. The moon is seen because it reflects the sun's light. An eclipse of the moon (lunar eclipse) occurs when the earth comes between the sun and the moon and prevents some of the light from the sun from reaching the moon. In other words, the earth casts its shadow on the moon. The solar eclipse occurs when the moon comes between the sun and the earth.

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