The Establishment Of Colonial Rule Up To 1914


During the period of 1900 to 1914, Nigeria underwent significant changes as colonial rule was established by the British. This marked a critical turning point in the nation's history, shaping its future trajectory. The process of colonization brought about immense transformations in various aspects of Nigerian society, including politics, economy, and culture.

The Establishment of Colonial Rule: The British colonization of Nigeria officially commenced in the early 20th century, following the successful pacification of resistance from local communities. The British colonial administration sought to exert control over the region for economic exploitation and strategic interests. This period saw the imposition of British laws, customs, and institutions over the indigenous populations, leading to profound changes in governance and society.

Objectives of Colonial Rule: The primary objectives of colonial rule up to 1914 were centered around economic exploitation, political domination, and social control. The British aimed to harness Nigeria's resources for the benefit of the colonial metropole, establishing systems of governance that facilitated their economic interests. This era witnessed the displacement of traditional systems of authority and the imposition of indirect rule to maintain control over the diverse Nigerian territories.

Impact on Indigenous Populations: The establishment of colonial rule had far-reaching consequences on the indigenous populations of Nigeria. It led to the disruption of existing social structures, the introduction of cash crop agriculture, and the emergence of a new class of African elites who collaborated with the colonial administration. The transformation of the economy from subsistence agriculture to cash crops like palm oil and cocoa further altered the dynamics of Nigerian society.

Challenges and Resistance: The imposition of colonial rule was met with resistance from various quarters in Nigeria. Indigenous groups such as the Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa resisted British incursions through armed uprisings, protests, and political mobilization. The resistance to colonial rule reflected the deep-seated desire for self-determination and autonomy among the diverse ethnic groups in Nigeria.

Conclusion: The period up to 1914 marked the consolidation of British colonial rule in Nigeria, laying the foundation for subsequent developments in the country's history. The establishment of colonial institutions, economic systems, and political structures during this era set the stage for the complex dynamics that would shape Nigeria's future trajectory towards independence and nationhood.


  1. Evaluate The Impacts Of Colonial Rule On Nigeria's Sociopolitical And Economic Structures
  2. Analyze The Factors That Led To The Establishment Of Colonial Rule
  3. Identify The Key Players And Events In The Establishment Of Colonial Rule In Nigeria
  4. Examine The Establishment Of Colonial Rule In Nigeria Up To 1914
  5. Understand The Resistance Movements Against Colonial Rule In Nigeria Up To 1914

Lesson Note

The late 19th and early 20th centuries marked an era of significant transformation for Nigeria, as it became subject to European colonial rule. This era, culminating in the formal establishment of British colonial administration in 1914, was characterized by profound changes to Nigeria’s sociopolitical and economic landscapes. This article explores the myriad factors that led to colonization, identifies key players and events, examines the colonial rule's impacts, and investigates the resistance movements that arose in Nigeria during this period.

Lesson Evaluation

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  1. The Establishment Of Colonial Rule Up To 1914: What was the major motive of European colonial powers in Nigeria during the establishment of colonial rule up to 1914? A. Spread democracy B. Promote cultural exchange C. Economic exploitation D. Humanitarian aid Answer: C. Economic exploitation
  2. Which European power played a significant role in the colonization of Nigeria up to 1914? A. Germany B. Portugal C. France D. Britain Answer: D. Britain
  3. What was the impact of the imposition of colonial rule on the traditional political structures in Nigeria up to 1914? A. Strengthened traditional institutions B. Abolished traditional rulers C. Undermined traditional authorities D. Had no effect on traditional politics Answer: C. Undermined traditional authorities
  4. Which event marked the beginning of formal British colonial rule in Nigeria up to 1914? A. Scramble for Africa B. Berlin Conference C. Treaty of Lagos D. Amalgamation of Northern and Southern Nigeria Answer: D. Amalgamation of Northern and Southern Nigeria
  5. How did the British colonial administration impact the economy of Nigeria up to 1914? A. Promoted industrialization B. Introduced cash crop production C. Eliminated all trade D. Implemented socialist measures Answer: B. Introduced cash crop production
  6. What was the significance of the Royal Niger Company in the establishment of colonial rule in Nigeria up to 1914? A. Led the military conquest of Nigeria B. Established a trade monopoly in Nigeria C. Introduced Christianity to Nigeria D. Negotiated treaties with Nigerian kingdoms Answer: B. Established a trade monopoly in Nigeria

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Past Questions

Wondering what past questions for this topic looks like? Here are a number of questions about The Establishment Of Colonial Rule Up To 1914 from previous years

Question 1 Report

The Richards Constitution of 1946 introduced the concept of regionalism in Nigeria, dividing the country into how many regions?

Question 1 Report

State any five reasons for the Amalgamation of Nigeria in 1914.

Practice a number of The Establishment Of Colonial Rule Up To 1914 past questions