# Principles Of Elementary Surveying*

## Overview

Understanding the Principles of Elementary Surveying:

Elementary surveying serves as the foundational aspect of any geographical study that involves the precise measurement and mapping of points, distances, and angles on the Earth's surface. In this course, students will delve into the fundamental principles that govern the art of surveying, ranging from the basic definitions of terms used in surveying to the practical techniques employed in the field.

One crucial component of this course is gaining proficiency in the utilization of essential surveying instruments such as the chain and prismatic compass. Students will not only learn how to operate these instruments effectively but also understand the underlying principles behind their functioning. The chain, for instance, is a traditional tool used for measuring distances, while the prismatic compass aids in determining directions.

Mastering the Skill of Plotting Traverse Accurately:

Plotting traverse is a core skill that surveyors must possess to accurately map out the points surveyed in the field. Through this course, students will learn the step-by-step process of plotting traverse, starting from recording field data to representing the survey information on a map. Emphasis will be placed on ensuring the precision and accuracy of the plotted traverse, as even minor errors can significantly impact the final survey results.

Effectively Avoiding Obstacles in the Field During Surveying Operations:

Fieldwork in surveying often presents challenges such as natural obstacles or man-made structures that can impede the surveying process. In this course, students will be equipped with strategies and techniques to effectively navigate and avoid obstacles encountered during surveying operations. Understanding how to adapt surveying plans in response to obstacles is essential for ensuring the success of the surveying mission.

In conclusion, the course on the principles of elementary surveying aims to equip students with the necessary knowledge and skills to conduct surveys with precision, accuracy, and efficiency. By mastering the principles and techniques of surveying, students will be prepared to tackle real-world geographical challenges that require spatial data collection and mapping.

## Objectives

1. Master the skill of plotting traverse accurately
2. Demonstrate proficiency in using surveying instruments such as chain and prismatic compass
3. Understand the principles and techniques of elementary surveying
4. Learn how to effectively avoid obstacles in the field during surveying operations

## Lesson Note

Elementary surveying is a critical skill for anyone interested in geography and mapping. It involves measuring distances, angles, and elevations to create accurate representations of the Earth's surface. This practice is fundamental for various fields, including construction, land development, and environmental studies.

## Lesson Evaluation

Congratulations on completing the lesson on Principles Of Elementary Surveying*. Now that youve explored the key concepts and ideas, its time to put your knowledge to the test. This section offers a variety of practice questions designed to reinforce your understanding and help you gauge your grasp of the material.

You will encounter a mix of question types, including multiple-choice questions, short answer questions, and essay questions. Each question is thoughtfully crafted to assess different aspects of your knowledge and critical thinking skills.

Use this evaluation section as an opportunity to reinforce your understanding of the topic and to identify any areas where you may need additional study. Don't be discouraged by any challenges you encounter; instead, view them as opportunities for growth and improvement.

1. What is the purpose of a chain in surveying? A. To measure angles B. To measure distances C. To calculate elevation D. To determine coordinates Answer: B. To measure distances
2. What is the main function of a prismatic compass in surveying? A. Measure distances B. Record angles C. Determine coordinates D. Indicate magnetic directions Answer: D. Indicate magnetic directions
3. When plotting a traverse in surveying, what does the term "tie line" refer to? A. A line connecting two points B. A line perpendicular to a baseline C. A line parallel to the horizon D. A line indicating magnetic north Answer: A. A line connecting two points
4. In surveying, what is the purpose of avoiding obstacles in the field during operations? A. To save time B. To ensure accuracy C. To improve visibility D. To exercise caution Answer: B. To ensure accuracy
5. Which instrument is commonly used to measure horizontal angles in surveying? A. Chain B. Level C. Theodolite D. Prism Answer: C. Theodolite
6. What is the primary advantage of using a prismatic compass over a regular magnetic compass in surveying? A. Greater accuracy in measuring angles B. Ability to measure distances C. Quick adjustment to local magnetic declination D. Compatibility with GPS technology Answer: C. Quick adjustment to local magnetic declination
7. When using a chain in surveying, what is the standard length typically used for each chain? A. 10 feet B. 22 yards C. 66 feet D. 100 feet Answer: D. 100 feet
8. What is the purpose of plotting a traverse in surveying? A. To create a map B. To measure elevations C. To calculate distances D. To record field observations Answer: A. To create a map
9. How can obstacles in the field affect the accuracy of surveying measurements? A. They have no impact on measurements B. They can cause errors in distance calculations C. They improve visibility for surveyors D. They help in identifying survey points Answer: B. They can cause errors in distance calculations
10. Which surveying instrument is essential for measuring distances accurately in the field? A. Compass B. Theodolite C. Ranging rod D. Chain Answer: D. Chain

## Past Questions

Wondering what past questions for this topic looks like? Here are a number of questions about Principles Of Elementary Surveying* from previous years

Question 1

Study the map extract provided on a scale of I:100,000 and answer the questions that follow. (Attach the topographical map extract to this answer booklet).
(a) On the topographical map extract, mark and name the following features using the letters in the bracket: (i) the 1460 Primary Trigonometrical Station (PTS); (ii) col (CL); (iii) gentle (GS); (iv) an area that rises above 1900 feet in the north (ARS); (v) a confluence in the northwest (CF).
(b) Calculate the gradient along line A to B, (Use the metric method of measurement) (c) Using evidence from the map, outline three reasons for which FUTUK is likely to be a more important settlement than Lungo.

Question 1

The bearing of the end of the secondary road at Ned from the road junction at Gag is approximately

Practice a number of Principles Of Elementary Surveying* past questions