Soil is a fundamental component of agricultural science, serving as the medium through which plants grow and thrive. In this course, we delve into the intricate details of soil examination, starting with the identification of different soil textures through manual feeling. By physically assessing the wet and dry soil samples, students will develop a keen sense of touch to distinguish between sand, silt, and clay textures.

This hands-on approach aids in understanding how soil texture influences water retention, aeration, and nutrient availability for plant growth. Moving on, students will learn to examine and differentiate between fertile and infertile soils based on visual cues. By observing and noting the distinguishing features such as colour, texture, structure, presence of organic matter, and living organisms, learners will gain insights into the factors that contribute to soil fertility. Understanding these characteristics is crucial for making informed decisions on soil management practices to enhance agricultural productivity sustainably. Furthermore, students will explore the intricate world beneath the ground by describing and identifying soil profiles.

A soil profile provides a vertical view of the soil layers or horizons, each exhibiting distinct properties influenced by various factors like climate, organisms, topography, and time. By recognizing and interpreting these layers, students can assess the quality, depth, and composition of soils, crucial for determining their suitability for specific crops and land uses. In addition to soil examination, this course delves into the identification of common rock types that underlie and influence soil formation.

Students will learn to differentiate between the three major rock types: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Understanding the geological origins of these rocks provides insights into the parent materials from which soils develop, influencing their properties and fertility. This knowledge is essential for comprehending the broader geological processes shaping the earth's surface and the agricultural landscapes we work with. Through practical exercises, visual aids, and interactive discussions, students will not only grasp the theoretical concepts of soil science but also apply their knowledge to real-world scenarios.

By the end of this course, learners will emerge with a profound understanding of soils, rocks, and their significance in sustainable agricultural practices. [[[Include a simple diagram illustrating the process of soil profile formation, showing the different layers and their characteristics.]]]


  1. Describe and identify soil profile
  2. Examine and distinguish between fertile and infertile soils based on visual characteristics
  3. Identify different soil textures through manual feeling
  4. Identify common rock types: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic

Lesson Note

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Lesson Evaluation

Congratulations on completing the lesson on Soil. Now that youve explored the key concepts and ideas, its time to put your knowledge to the test. This section offers a variety of practice questions designed to reinforce your understanding and help you gauge your grasp of the material.

You will encounter a mix of question types, including multiple-choice questions, short answer questions, and essay questions. Each question is thoughtfully crafted to assess different aspects of your knowledge and critical thinking skills.

Use this evaluation section as an opportunity to reinforce your understanding of the topic and to identify any areas where you may need additional study. Don't be discouraged by any challenges you encounter; instead, view them as opportunities for growth and improvement.

  1. What is the process of examining soil texture by manually feeling wet and dry soil known as? A. Soil analysis B. Soil mechanics C. Soil classification D. Soil texturing Answer: D. Soil texturing
  2. Which of the following characteristics is NOT used to distinguish between fertile and infertile soils? A. Color B. Texture C. Presence of organic matter D. Presence of living things Answer: B. Texture
  3. What do we examine in soil samples to note distinguishing features such as color, texture, and structure? A. Soil fertility B. Soil profile C. Soil composition D. Soil properties Answer: C. Soil composition
  4. Which of the following is NOT typically found in fertile soil? A. Healthy plant roots B. Plenty of organic matter C. Poor soil structure D. Presence of earthworms Answer: C. Poor soil structure
  5. What is the term used for a vertical section of the soil from the ground surface down through all soil horizons? A. Soil composition B. Soil profile C. Soil texture D. Soil structure Answer: B. Soil profile
  6. Which common rock type is formed by the cooling and solidification of magma or lava? A. Igneous B. Sedimentary C. Metamorphic D. Sedimentary and Metamorphic Answer: A. Igneous
  7. Which common rock type is formed by the deposition and solidification of sediments? A. Igneous B. Sedimentary C. Metamorphic D. Igneous and Metamorphic Answer: B. Sedimentary
  8. Which common rock type is formed by the alteration of pre-existing rock through heat and pressure? A. Igneous B. Sedimentary C. Metamorphic D. Igneous and Sedimentary Answer: C. Metamorphic
  9. When examining soil profiles, which layer is typically characterized by the accumulation of organic matter and humus? A. A-Horizon B. B-Horizon C. C-Horizon D. Bedrock Answer: A. A-Horizon

Recommended Books

Past Questions

Wondering what past questions for this topic looks like? Here are a number of questions about Soil from previous years

Question 1 Report

The diagram below illustrates a tool used to analyse a soil sample in an experiment. Use it to answer this question.

The part labelled Ill will contain

Question 1 Report

What are abiotic factors in an agricultural ecosystem?

Practice a number of Soil past questions