Welcome to the Mammalian Anatomy and Physiology course material focusing on the fascinating topic of Movement. In this module, we will delve into the intricate mechanisms that govern movement in mammals, exploring the interplay of muscles, skeletal tissues, and the physiological processes underlying the heartbeat and respiration.

One of the fundamental aspects we will cover is the **different types of muscle tissues** found in mammals. **Muscle tissues** play a crucial role in facilitating movement by contracting and generating force. This module will provide a detailed understanding of **skeletal muscle**, **smooth muscle**, and **cardiac muscle**, highlighting their unique structural features and functional properties.

Furthermore, we will examine the **structure and function of skeletal muscles** in detail. **Skeletal muscles** are vital for generating voluntary movements in mammals, such as walking, running, and jumping. By studying the anatomical organization of **skeletal muscles** and their contractile mechanisms, you will gain a deeper insight into how these muscles enable precise and coordinated movements.

The course material will also elucidate the intricate **mechanism of the heartbeat**, focusing on the excitation and contractions that drive the cardiac cycle. We will explore the specialized cardiac structures involved in regulating the heartbeat, including the **Sinoatrial Node (SAN)**, **Atrioventricular Node (AVN)**, and **Purkinje fibers**. Understanding how these components work together harmoniously will provide a comprehensive overview of how the heart functions as a muscular pump.

Additionally, we will delve into the concept of **respiratory quotient (RQ)** and its significance in mammalian metabolism. By calculating the **RQ of different substrates**, you will learn how this parameter serves as a valuable indicator of metabolic processes. Exploring the **significance of RQ** will deepen your understanding of how organisms utilize various substrates to meet their energy requirements and maintain physiological homeostasis.

This course material is designed to provide you with a holistic perspective on the mechanisms governing movement in mammals, integrating physiological concepts with anatomical structures to enhance your grasp of this essential aspect of mammalian biology. Get ready to embark on a journey into the dynamic world of mammalian anatomy and physiology!


  1. Describe the mechanism of the heartbeat including excitation and contractions
  2. Define and calculate the respiratory quotient (RQ) of different substrates
  3. Discuss the significance of RQ in metabolism
  4. Understand the different types of muscle tissues
  5. Explain the structure and function of skeletal muscles

Lesson Note

The concept of movement is fundamental to many physiological processes in both animals and plants. In humans, movement involves the coordination of muscles, bones, and the nervous system. Muscular contractions enable physical activities such as walking, running, and other forms of exercise, while internal movements involve processes like the heartbeat and peristalsis in the digestive system.

Lesson Evaluation

Congratulations on completing the lesson on Movement. Now that youve explored the key concepts and ideas, its time to put your knowledge to the test. This section offers a variety of practice questions designed to reinforce your understanding and help you gauge your grasp of the material.

You will encounter a mix of question types, including multiple-choice questions, short answer questions, and essay questions. Each question is thoughtfully crafted to assess different aspects of your knowledge and critical thinking skills.

Use this evaluation section as an opportunity to reinforce your understanding of the topic and to identify any areas where you may need additional study. Don't be discouraged by any challenges you encounter; instead, view them as opportunities for growth and improvement.

  1. What are the three types of muscle tissues found in mammals? A. Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac B. Skeletal, Striated, Voluntary C. Smooth, Involuntary, Cardiac D. Striated, Voluntary, Involuntary Answer: A. Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac
  2. Which muscle tissue type is responsible for the voluntary movements of the body? A. Skeletal muscle B. Smooth muscle C. Cardiac muscle D. Involuntary muscle Answer: A. Skeletal muscle
  3. What is the specific structure in the heart responsible for generating the electrical impulses that regulate the heartbeat? A. SAN (Sinoatrial node) B. AVN (Atrioventricular node) C. Bundle of His D. Purkinje fibers Answer: A. SAN (Sinoatrial node)
  4. Which of the following best describes the role of Purkinje fibers in the heart? A. Conducting electrical impulses to the ventricles B. Generating the initial impulse for heartbeat C. Regulating blood pressure D. Controlling heart rate Answer: A. Conducting electrical impulses to the ventricles
  5. What is the primary function of skeletal muscles in mammals? A. Involuntary contractions B. Pumping blood throughout the body C. Producing voluntary movements D. Regulating body temperature Answer: C. Producing voluntary movements
  6. The determination of the respiratory quotient (RQ) of different substrates provides insight into: A. Carbohydrate metabolism only B. Protein metabolism only C. Fat metabolism only D. Metabolic processes and energy substrate utilization Answer: D. Metabolic processes and energy substrate utilization
  7. What does the respiratory quotient (RQ) value of 1 indicate about the substrate being metabolized? A. Carbohydrate metabolism B. Protein metabolism C. Fat metabolism D. Incomplete combustion Answer: A. Carbohydrate metabolism
  8. Why is the mechanism of the heartbeat considered essential for proper physiological function in mammals? A. Regulates body temperature B. Controls digestion C. Ensures oxygen delivery to tissues D. Manages waste elimination Answer: C. Ensures oxygen delivery to tissues
  9. How does the excitation-contraction coupling in muscle cells contribute to movement in mammals? A. By maintaining blood pressure B. By converting chemical signals to mechanical force C. By controlling hormone secretion D. By facilitating nerve transmission Answer: B. By converting chemical signals to mechanical force

Recommended Books

Past Questions

Wondering what past questions for this topic looks like? Here are a number of questions about Movement from previous years

Question 1 Report


Study carefully specimens C, D and E and use them to answer questions 2(a) to 2(c).

(a) (i) State the mode of nutrition of specimen D.

(ii) State one way by which each of specimens C, D and E is of economic importance.

(b)(i) Classify specimens C, D and E into their phyla and classes.

(ii) List three observable characteristic features of each of the classes to which specimens C, D and E belong. 

(iii) In a tabular form, state two observable differences between C and D.

(C) List four observable features of specimen E that are sensory in nature.

Question 1 Report

The movement of Euglena towards the source of light is a?

Question 1 Report

Soil fertility is NOT conserved by

Practice a number of Movement past questions