The West African Examination Council (WAEC) Literature-in-English exam is a vital component of the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE). It tests students' understanding of various literary works, including their themes and characters. In order to excel in this exam, it is essential to have a comprehensive grasp of the common themes and characters often encountered in WAEC Literature-in-English questions. This article aims to analyze these key elements and provide insights for exam success.


Themes in literature are overarching ideas or concepts that the author explores throughout a work. Familiarizing yourself with the common themes in WAEC Literature-in-English will enable you to identify and discuss them effectively in your exam answers. Some prominent themes include:

  • Love and Relationships
  • Power and Greed
  • Corruption and Society
  • Coming of Age
  • War and Conflict
  • Identity and Self-Discovery

It is advisable to study these themes in relation to specific texts you will encounter in the exam. Analyzing how these themes are developed and portrayed by different authors will provide you with a comprehensive understanding of the literary works.


Characters play a crucial role in literature, as they drive the plot and engage readers emotionally. In the WAEC Literature-in-English exam, you will be expected to analyze the motivations, relationships, and significance of various characters. Some common characters frequently encountered in the exam include:

  • Protagonist
  • Antagonist
  • Foil Characters
  • Dynamic Characters
  • Static Characters

By understanding the traits, actions, and relationships of these characters, you will be able to provide insightful analysis and interpretation in your exam essays.

Tips for Success

To excel in the WAEC Literature-in-English exam, it is crucial to adopt effective study strategies. Here are some tips to enhance your preparation:

  • Utilize Past Questions: Practice with WAEC past questions to familiarize yourself with the exam format and style.
  • Create Study Groups: Collaborate with classmates to discuss and analyze literary works, themes, and characters.
  • Read Actively: Engage with the texts by taking notes, highlighting key passages, and annotating.
  • Develop Analytical Skills: Practice critical thinking and literary analysis to strengthen your understanding of themes and characters.
  • Seek Guidance: Consult your teachers or use reliable online resources, such as Green Bridge CBT, for additional support and study materials.

By applying these tips and devoting sufficient time to study and revision, you can significantly improve your performance in the WAEC Literature-in-English exam.


The article discusses common themes and characters found in the WAEC Literature-in-English exam. It emphasizes the importance of understanding these key elements for exam success. The article provides insights into themes such as love and relationships, power and greed, and identity and self-discovery. It also highlights the significance of analyzing characters such as protagonists, antagonists, and dynamic characters. The article concludes with tips for exam success, including utilizing past questions, creating study groups, and seeking guidance from reliable sources like Green Bridge CBT.


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