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**Question 1**
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An electron of mass m and charge e moves in a circular path in a magnetic field of flux density B. How long does it take to complete one orbit?

**Question 2**
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The length of an iron bar is 100cm at 20°C. At what temperature will its length increase by 0.01%? [Linear expansivity of iron = 1.2 x 10\(^{-5}\)°C]

**Answer Details**

The problem requires us to find the temperature at which the length of the iron bar increases by 0.01%. We can use the formula for linear expansion of a solid: ΔL = α L ΔT where ΔL is the change in length, L is the original length, ΔT is the change in temperature, and α is the coefficient of linear expansion. Rearranging this equation, we get: ΔT = ΔL / (α L) We can substitute the given values into this equation to obtain the temperature change required to produce the given change in length: ΔT = (0.01/100) / (1.2 x 10^(-5) x 100) = 8.33°C Since we are asked for the temperature at which the length of the iron bar will increase by 0.01%, we need to add this temperature change to the initial temperature of 20°C: T_final = T_initial + ΔT = 20 + 8.33 = 28.3°C Therefore, the correct answer is option (C), 28.3°C.

**Question 3**
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Which of the following statements about the process of melting of a solid are true? The temperature of the solid will

I. remain steady until melting starts.

ll. keep rising until melting starts,

Ill remain steady as melting proceeds.

V, keep rising as melting proceeds.

**Question 4**
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An electrical device has 50 turns in its primary coil and 20 turns in the secondary coil. The device can be a\an?

**Answer Details**

The electrical device described is a step-down transformer. A transformer is a device that can change the voltage level of an alternating current (AC) electrical signal. It has two coils, a primary coil and a secondary coil, which are wrapped around a common iron core. In this case, the primary coil has more turns than the secondary coil, which means that the voltage in the secondary coil will be lower than the voltage in the primary coil. This is because transformers work by transferring energy from one coil to the other through the magnetic field created by the alternating current. A step-up transformer would have more turns in the secondary coil than the primary coil, resulting in a higher voltage in the secondary coil. A DC generator produces direct current, which is different from the alternating current used in transformers. An AC generator produces alternating current, but it does not have the two coils of a transformer, so it cannot be a transformer.

**Question 5**
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The sketched graph above illustrates the heating curve of a 0.02kg of water. Determine the approximate value of the specific latent heat of vapourization of water

**Question 6**
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A ray of light travels obliquely from a less dense medium to a denser medium. Which of the following statements is true about the light?

**Answer Details**

When light travels from a less dense medium (such as air) to a denser medium (such as glass), it slows down. According to Snell's Law of Refraction, the ratio of the speed of light in the two media is proportional to the ratio of their refractive indices. This means that the speed of the light decreases in the denser medium. As the speed of light is proportional to its frequency, a decrease in the speed of light results in a decrease in its frequency. This means that there is a change in the frequency of the light when it travels from the less dense medium to the denser medium. Additionally, when light travels obliquely from a less dense medium to a denser medium, it bends towards the normal (perpendicular) to the surface separating the two media. This is known as refraction and is responsible for the bending of light at the surface of a lens or the surface of a swimming pool. So, the answer is that the light refracts towards the normal and there is a change in the frequency of the light.

**Question 7**
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The material used to slow down the neutrons in a nuclear reactor is

**Answer Details**

The material used to slow down the neutrons in a nuclear reactor is graphite. In a nuclear reactor, neutrons are released from the fission of uranium atoms, and these neutrons need to be slowed down or moderated so that they can be absorbed by other uranium atoms to sustain the chain reaction. Graphite is an excellent moderator because it contains many carbon atoms that are arranged in a crystalline lattice structure. The neutrons can easily collide with the carbon atoms in the graphite lattice and transfer some of their kinetic energy to the graphite atoms, thereby slowing down the neutrons. Slower neutrons are more likely to be absorbed by uranium atoms and initiate fission reactions. Boron and copper are not typically used as moderators in nuclear reactors. Boron is often used as a neutron absorber to control the rate of the nuclear reaction, while copper is a good conductor of heat and electricity but is not an effective moderator. Uranium is the fuel used in the reactor to sustain the nuclear reaction, but it is not used as a moderator because it is more likely to absorb neutrons than to slow them down.

**Question 8**
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The magnitude of the force experienced by a charge of 1.6 x 10\(^{-8}\)C in a uniform electric field of intensity 5 x 105NC\(^{-1}\) is

**Question 9**
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The diagram above illustrates a beam of parallel rays from a distant object O, incident on one side of the total reflecting prism. Which diagram does not represent the correct path of the beam when it emerges from the prism?

**Question 10**
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An a.c. generator can be converted to a d.c. electric motor by replacing the

**Answer Details**

An AC generator and a DC motor are different in their basic operating principles and construction. To convert an AC generator to a DC motor, certain modifications must be made. The main difference between an AC generator and a DC motor is that an AC generator produces alternating current (AC) while a DC motor runs on direct current (DC). In order to convert an AC generator to a DC motor, the AC output of the generator must be converted to DC. This can be achieved by replacing the slip rings of the AC generator with a split ring, and connecting a DC source (such as a battery) to the split ring. The split ring acts as a rectifier, converting the AC output of the generator to DC. Therefore, to convert an AC generator to a DC motor, you would replace the slip rings with a split ring and connect a DC source.

**Question 11**
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In photoelectric effect, the number of electrode emitted per second from a metallic surface is proportional to the

**Question 12**
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A 60kg man stands on a weighing balance in an elevator. If the elevator accelerates upwards at 5ms\(^{-2}\), determine the reading of the scale. [g = 10ms\(^{-2}\)]

**Answer Details**

The reading of the scale in this situation is equal to the weight of the man plus the force due to the acceleration of the elevator. The weight of the man can be calculated as follows: Weight = mass x gravity Weight = 60kg x 10ms\(^{-2}\) Weight = 600N The force due to the acceleration of the elevator can be calculated as follows: Force = mass x acceleration Force = 60kg x 5ms\(^{-2}\) Force = 300N Adding these two forces together, we get the total force acting on the man: Total force = Weight + Force due to acceleration Total force = 600N + 300N Total force = 900N So the reading of the scale would be 900N.

**Question 13**
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In an electric circuit, an inductor of inductance 0.5 H and resistance 50\(\Omega\) is connected to an alternating current source of frequency 60 Hz. Calculate the impedance of the circuit.

**Answer Details**

The impedance of the circuit can be calculated using the formula: Z = √(R^2 + X^2) Where R is the resistance of the inductor and X is the reactance of the inductor, which is given by: X = 2πfL Where f is the frequency of the AC source and L is the inductance of the inductor. Substituting the given values, we get: X = 2π(60)(0.5) = 188.5 Ω R = 50 Ω Z = √(50^2 + 188.5^2) = 195.0 Ω Therefore, the impedance of the circuit is 195.0 Ω. To explain it in simpler terms, the impedance of the circuit is like the total resistance that the AC source "sees" when it is connected to the circuit. It takes into account both the resistance and the reactance (which is like a resistance but specific to AC circuits) of the circuit. In this case, the inductor has a reactance of 188.5 Ω which, when combined with the resistance of 50 Ω, gives an impedance of 195.0 Ω.

**Question 14**
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The diagram illustrates a ball of mass m sliding down a plank inclined at an angle of 0 to the horizontal. The kinetic friction between the ball and the plank is F and acceleration of free fall is g. The normal force on the ball is?

**Question 15**
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The temperature of an object is raised by 120°C. The resulting increase in its absolute temperature is

**Question 16**
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A diver steps off a diving platform that is 10m above the water. If there is no air resistance during the fall, there will be a decrease in the diver's

**Answer Details**

When the diver steps off the diving platform, they start to fall towards the water due to the force of gravity. As the diver falls, their height above the water decreases, and therefore their gravitational potential energy decreases. At the same time, the diver's speed increases as they fall, which means their kinetic energy increases. Since there is no air resistance during the fall, the total mechanical energy of the diver (which is the sum of their kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy) remains constant. This is known as the conservation of energy. However, momentum is not directly affected by the decrease in height or the increase in speed. Momentum is defined as the product of an object's mass and velocity, and it only changes if there is a net force acting on the object. In the absence of external forces, the momentum of the diver remains constant. Therefore, the correct answer is: the diver's gravitational potential energy decreases, while their kinetic energy increases, and their momentum remains constant.

**Question 17**
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A 500N box rests on a horizontal floor. A constant horizontal force is exerted on the box so that it moves through 8m. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between the floor and the box is 0.22, calculate the workdone on the box

**Answer Details**

The work done on the box is equal to the force exerted on the box multiplied by the distance it moves in the direction of the force. In this case, the force exerted on the box is the force required to overcome friction, which is equal to the normal force multiplied by the coefficient of kinetic friction. First, we need to calculate the normal force, which is the force exerted on the box by the floor in a direction perpendicular to the surface. Since the box is at rest, the normal force is equal to the weight of the box, which is 500N. Next, we can calculate the force required to overcome friction, which is equal to the normal force multiplied by the coefficient of kinetic friction. force of friction = 500N x 0.22 = 110N Finally, we can calculate the work done on the box by multiplying the force required to overcome friction by the distance moved. work done = force of friction x distance moved = 110N x 8m = 880J Therefore, the work done on the box is 880J, and the correct option is (a) 880J.

**Question 18**
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Which of the following units is not fundamental?

**Question 19**
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In the hydraulic press, the force F applied is related to the diameter d of the cylinder by

**Question 20**
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A motorcycle starting from rest is uniformly accelerated such that its velocity in 10s is 72kmhr\(^{-1}\). What is its acceleration?

**Answer Details**

The formula for acceleration is given by: acceleration = change in velocity / change in time. In this case, the change in velocity is 72 km/hr and the change in time is 10s. To use the formula, we first need to convert the velocity from km/hr to m/s. 72 km/hr = 72 x 1000/3600 m/s = 20 m/s So, acceleration = 20 m/s / 10s = 2 m/s\(^2\) Therefore, the acceleration of the motorcycle is 2 m/s\(^2\).

**Question 21**
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The diagram above illustrates a ball of mass m sliding down a plank inclined at an angle of 0 to the horizontal. The kinetic friction between the ball and the plank is F and the acceleration of free fall is g. The net force on the ball along the plank is?

**Answer Details**

The net force acting on the ball is the vector sum of all the forces acting on it along the plank. The forces acting on the ball are the gravitational force and the kinetic frictional force. The gravitational force acting on the ball can be resolved into two components, one perpendicular to the plank and the other parallel to the plank. The component perpendicular to the plank is balanced by the normal force of the plank on the ball. The component parallel to the plank is responsible for the acceleration of the ball down the plank and is given by mg sin θ, where θ is the angle of inclination of the plank. The kinetic frictional force acts in the opposite direction to the motion of the ball and is given by F. Therefore, the net force acting on the ball along the plank is the vector sum of the gravitational force and the kinetic frictional force: Net force = mg sin θ - F Therefore, the correct answer is option (C): mgsin θ - F.

**Question 22**
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Which of the following statements correctly explains why a total solar eclipse would be seen by people on only a small portion of the earth's surface? The

**Question 23**
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How would the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor be affected if the distance of separation of its plates is decreased? It will

**Answer Details**

The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is directly proportional to the surface area of the plates and inversely proportional to the distance between the plates. This relationship can be expressed as C = εA/d, where C is the capacitance, ε is the permittivity of free space, A is the surface area of the plates, and d is the distance between the plates. When the distance of separation between the plates is decreased, the denominator of this equation decreases, causing the overall value of the capacitance to increase. So, the answer is that the capacitance will increase in value.

**Question 24**
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A parallel plate capacitor is charged and the charging battery is subsequently disconnected. lf the plates of the capacitor are moved farther apart by means of insulating handles, the

**Question 25**
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Which of the current-voltage characteristics shown below is that exhibited an ohmic conductor?

**Question 26**
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Which of the following statements about the motion of a simple pendulum is true?

**Question 27**
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The vacuum between the double walls of a thermos flask reduces heat loss through

**Answer Details**

The vacuum between the double walls of a thermos flask helps to reduce heat loss in two ways: conduction and radiation. Conduction is the transfer of heat through a material, such as the metal walls of the thermos flask. When there is a vacuum between the walls, there are no particles to transfer heat through conduction, so heat cannot escape or enter the flask easily. Radiation is the transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves, such as the infrared radiation that is emitted by hot objects. The vacuum between the walls of the thermos flask helps to reduce heat loss through radiation by reflecting the infrared radiation back into the flask, rather than allowing it to escape through the walls. Therefore, the vacuum between the double walls of a thermos flask reduces heat loss through both conduction and radiation, making it an effective insulator for keeping hot liquids hot and cold liquids cold.

**Question 28**
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Which of the following statements explain why hot soapy water is more effective in cleaning oil-stained dishes?

**Answer Details**

The statement that explains why hot soapy water is more effective in cleaning oil-stained dishes is that "soap and heat decrease the surface tension of oil." When oil gets stuck on dishes, it forms a layer on top of the surface, making it difficult for water to penetrate and remove it. However, soap molecules are designed to break down the surface tension of oil, allowing water to mix with it and wash it away. The addition of heat to the soapy water further helps to reduce the surface tension of the oil, making it easier to clean. Therefore, using hot soapy water is more effective in cleaning oil-stained dishes.

**Question 29**
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In collision between two objects, kinetic energy is conserved only if

**Answer Details**

In a collision between two objects, kinetic energy is conserved only if the collision is elastic. An elastic collision is a type of collision in which the total kinetic energy of the two objects before and after the collision remains the same. In other words, no kinetic energy is lost or gained during the collision. In an inelastic collision, on the other hand, some or all of the kinetic energy is converted into other forms of energy, such as heat or sound. This means that kinetic energy is not conserved in an inelastic collision. So, the correct option is "the collision is elastic". If the collision is inelastic, then the kinetic energy is not conserved. The other options are not correct because the conservation of kinetic energy does not depend on whether one of the objects was initially at rest or whether potential energy is converted to work.

**Question 30**
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Which of the following statement about viscosity is not true? it

**Question 31**
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Which of the following waves requires a material medium for its propagation?

**Answer Details**

The wave that requires a material medium for its propagation is sound waves. Sound waves are a type of mechanical wave, which means they need a material medium, such as air, water, or a solid, to travel through. This is because sound waves involve the compression and rarefaction of the medium, which causes the wave to propagate. Radio waves and light waves are types of electromagnetic waves, which do not require a material medium to travel through. They can travel through a vacuum, such as outer space, and do not involve the compression and rarefaction of a medium. X-rays are also a type of electromagnetic wave, and like other electromagnetic waves, they do not require a material medium to propagate. They can travel through a vacuum and do not involve the compression and rarefaction of a medium.

**Question 32**
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A beam consisting of \(\alpha\)-particles. \(\beta\)-particles and \(\gamma\)-rays pass through a magnetic field at right angles to the direction of the field. Which of the following observations would be made about the \(\alpha\)-particles, \(\beta\)-particles, and \(\gamma\)-rays respectively?

**Answer Details**

The correct observation would be "Deflected, not deflected, not deflected." \(\alpha\)-particles are positively charged particles and are therefore deflected when they pass through a magnetic field. The direction of deflection is determined by the right-hand rule and depends on the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of the velocity of the particle. \(\beta\)-particles are also charged particles, but they are negatively charged, so they are not deflected by a magnetic field. \(\gamma\)-rays are not charged particles and therefore do not experience a force when they pass through a magnetic field. Thus, they are not deflected. In summary, the deflection of charged particles in a magnetic field depends on the charge and velocity of the particle, while uncharged particles are not deflected.

**Question 33**
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An electron of mass 9.1x 10\(^{31}\) kg is travelling at a speed of 2.0 x 10\(^6\)ms\(^{-1}\). Calculate the associate wavelength of the electron. [h = 6.6. x 10\(^{34}\) Js]

**Answer Details**

The wavelength of a moving particle, such as an electron, is given by the de Broglie equation: λ = h/mv where λ is the wavelength, h is Planck's constant, m is the mass of the particle, and v is its velocity. Substituting the given values, we get: λ = (6.6 x 10^-34 J s) / (9.1 x 10^-31 kg) x (2.0 x 10^6 m/s) Simplifying this expression, we get: λ = 3.63 x 10^-10 m Therefore, the associated wavelength of the electron is 3.63 x 10^-10 m Explanation: This question requires the application of the de Broglie equation, which relates the wavelength of a moving particle to its momentum. In this case, we are given the mass and velocity of an electron and asked to calculate its associated wavelength. We can do this by simply plugging in the given values into the de Broglie equation and solving for λ. The answer we obtain is the wavelength of the electron.

**Question 34**
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A luminous object is one that

**Answer Details**

A luminous object is one that gives off light of its own. This means it does not need any other source of light to shine. It produces light on its own, making it visible even in the dark. Examples of luminous objects include the sun, stars, fireflies, and light bulbs.

**Question 35**
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What factors determine the frequency of a note emitted by a vibrating string?

**Answer Details**

The frequency of a note emitted by a vibrating string is determined by the tension in the string, the mass per unit length of the string, and the length of the string. When a string is plucked or struck, it vibrates at a certain frequency, producing a sound wave with a particular pitch. The tension in the string determines how tightly the string is stretched and how fast it vibrates. The mass per unit length of the string affects how easily the string vibrates and the frequency of the sound wave. The longer the string, the lower the frequency of the sound wave, while the shorter the string, the higher the frequency of the sound wave. Therefore, the correct option is: "Mass per unit length of string, tension in string and length of string".

**Question 36**
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Water waves have a wavelength of 3.6cm and speed of 18cms\(^{-1 }\) in deep water. If the waves enter shallow water with wavelength of 2.0cm, calculate the speed of the waves in the shallow water.

**Question 37**
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Two identical cups containing the same volume of water at 45°C and 5°C, are left in a room at 25°C. Which of the following graphs correctly illustrates the variation of temperature with time?

**Question 38**
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The depolarising agent in a Leclanche cell is?

**Answer Details**

The depolarizing agent in a Leclanche cell is manganese (IV) oxide. A Leclanche cell is a type of battery that uses a chemical reaction to generate electricity. Inside the cell, there are two electrodes, a zinc plate and a carbon rod, immersed in an electrolyte solution of ammonium chloride. When the cell is in use, the zinc plate undergoes a chemical reaction with the ammonium chloride, releasing electrons and forming zinc chloride and hydrogen gas. This process creates a buildup of positive charge on the zinc plate, which can eventually inhibit the flow of electrons and reduce the cell's efficiency. To counteract this buildup of positive charge, the manganese (IV) oxide acts as a depolarizing agent. It reacts with the hydrogen gas produced by the reaction on the zinc plate, converting it to water and preventing the buildup of positive charge. This allows the cell to continue generating electricity for a longer period of time.

**Question 39**
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The volume of a fixed mass of a gas varies inversely as the pressure on it provided the temperature is constant. This statement is

**Answer Details**

The statement "The volume of a fixed mass of a gas varies inversely as the pressure on it provided the temperature is constant" is describing Boyle's law. Boyle's law states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure on it. In other words, if the pressure on a gas increases, its volume will decrease, and vice versa. So, the statement is Boyle's law.

**Question 40**
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A moving-coil galvanometer which gives a full-scale on deflection with 0.005A is converted to a voltmeter reading up to 5V using an external resistance of 975\(\Omega\). What is the resistance of the metre?

**Answer Details**

To convert a moving-coil galvanometer into a voltmeter, an external resistance is added in series with the galvanometer. The value of the external resistance is chosen so that the full-scale deflection of the galvanometer corresponds to the maximum voltage that the voltmeter is intended to measure. In this case, the moving-coil galvanometer gives a full-scale deflection with a current of 0.005A. To convert it into a voltmeter that reads up to 5V, an external resistance of 975\(\Omega\) is used. Using Ohm's Law, we can calculate the resistance of the galvanometer (meter resistance) as follows: Meter resistance = (maximum voltage / full-scale current) - external resistance Meter resistance = (5 V / 0.005 A) - 975\(\Omega\) Meter resistance = 1000\(\Omega\) - 975\(\Omega\) Meter resistance = 25\(\Omega\) Therefore, the resistance of the meter is 25.00\(\Omega\). Option C is the correct answer.

**Question 41**
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Which of the following actions would increase the electric force between two positively charged particles?

**Answer Details**

The electric force between two charged particles is determined by two factors: the magnitude of the charges and the distance between the particles. Like charges, such as two positively charged particles, repel each other, so an increase in the electric force would mean an increase in the repulsion between the particles. To increase the electric force between two positively charged particles, we need to either increase the magnitude of the charges or decrease the distance between the particles. Decreasing the mass of the particles or increasing the mass of the particles has no effect on the electric force. Similarly, "increasing the assistance" between the particles is not a meaningful term in this context, so it is not a relevant option. Therefore, the correct answer is: decreasing the distance between the particles. This is because the closer the particles are to each other, the stronger the electric force of repulsion between them will be, according to Coulomb's law.

**Question 42**
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Which of the following statements about photoelectrons is correct?

**Question 43**
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The average distance moved by a molecule between collisions is called

**Answer Details**

The correct term for the average distance moved by a molecule between collisions is "mean free path". This is the average distance that a molecule travels before it collides with another molecule or object in its surroundings. Think of it like a crowded room where people are moving around. If you're a person in the room, you're going to bump into other people as you move around. The average distance you travel before bumping into someone else is like the mean free path for a molecule in a gas. The mean free path is affected by several factors, including the density of the gas, the temperature, and the size of the molecules. In general, if the gas is denser or the molecules are larger, the mean free path will be shorter because there are more collisions happening. Similarly, if the temperature is higher, the molecules will be moving faster and the mean free path will be longer. Understanding the concept of mean free path is important in fields like physics and chemistry, where scientists study the behavior of gases and other materials at the molecular level.

**Question 44**
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The quantity of motion of a body is its

**Answer Details**

The quantity of motion of a body is its momentum. Momentum is a measure of how much "oomph" an object has when it is moving. It is calculated by multiplying the object's mass by its velocity, or speed in a particular direction. Think of a heavy truck moving slowly and a small car moving quickly. Even though the car is lighter than the truck, it can still have a greater momentum because it is moving faster. Momentum is important in physics because it helps us understand how objects interact with each other during collisions and other events. Acceleration refers to how quickly an object's velocity changes over time, while displacement is a measure of how far an object has moved from its original position. Velocity, on the other hand, is a measure of how fast an object is moving in a particular direction.

**Question 45**
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Which of the following machines does not apply the lever principle?

**Question 46**
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An image formed on a screen is always?

**Question 47**
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The earpiece of a telephone handset converts energy from

**Answer Details**

The earpiece of a telephone handset converts energy from one form to another. In this case, the earpiece converts electrical energy into sound energy that can be heard by the person using the telephone. When a person speaks into the telephone, their voice is converted into an electrical signal which is sent along the telephone wire to the other person's telephone. This electrical signal is received by the earpiece, which then converts it back into sound energy that can be heard by the person holding the telephone. Therefore, the correct answer is option (A), "electrical to sound".

**Question 48**
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A ray of light traveling from glass into ethyl alcohol is incident at the boundary at an angle of incidence 30\(^o\). Calculate the angle of refraction.

[Refractive index of glass =1.5; refractive index of ethyl alcohol = 1.36]

**Answer Details**

The angle of refraction can be calculated using Snell's Law, which states that the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is equal to the ratio of the refractive indices of the two materials. Mathematically, this can be written as: sin(angle of incidence) / sin(angle of refraction) = refractive index of material 1 / refractive index of material 2 For this problem, we can substitute the given values and solve for the angle of refraction: sin(30\(^o\)) / sin(angle of refraction) = 1.5 / 1.36 Taking the inverse sine of both sides: angle of refraction = sin^-1(sin(30\(^o\)) * 1.36 / 1.5) Using a calculator, the angle of refraction can be calculated to be approximately 33.5\(^o\). So, the angle of refraction is approximately 33.5\(^o\).

**Question 49**
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The velocity of sound in air at 15°C is 35400ms\(^{-1}\). Calculate the velocity at 47\(^o\)C

**Question 50**
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When two cells of negligible internal resistances and equal e.m.f. denoted by E\(_1\) and E\(_2\) are connected in parallel, combined e.m.f. E is given by

**Answer Details**

When two cells of negligible internal resistances are connected in parallel, their positive terminals are connected together and their negative terminals are connected together. This forms a circuit with two paths for current flow. Since the cells have the same electromotive force (emf) E1 and E2, they are trying to push the same amount of charge through each path. Thus, the total emf of the combination E must be the same as E1 and E2. Therefore, the correct option is E = E1 = E2. is incorrect because emfs in parallel do not add up. is incorrect because it represents the formula for calculating the combined resistance of two resistors in parallel, not emfs. is incorrect because it represents the formula for calculating the ratio of emfs in a series circuit.

**Question 51**
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**TEST OF PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE QUESTION**

(a)

You are provided with a metre rule, a knife-edge, set of masses, inextensible string, retort support and other necessary apparatus.

i. Place the metre rule on the knife edge. Read and record the point G where the metre rule balances horizontally, as shown in Fig (a).

ii. Suspend the metre rule at G with the aid of the string provided and attach the string to the retort support as shown in Fig 1(b). Keep the string attached to this point throughout the experiment.

iii. Attach the mass M\(_{0}\) at the 80cm mark of the metre rule. Determine the distance of y from G. Keep M\(_{0}\) at this

position throughout the experiment.

iv. Suspend a mass M= 40g on the side AG and adjust its position until the metre rule balances horizontally.

v. Measure and record the distance of x of M from G. Evaluate x\(^{-1}\)

vi. Repeat the procedure for four other values of M= 60g, 80g, 100g and 120g. Measure and record x and evaluate x\(^{-1}\) in each case.

vii. Tabulate the readings.

viii. Plot a graph of M on the vertical axis and x on the horizontal axis, starting both axes from the origin (0,0).

ix. Determine the slope s of the graph:

x. Given that s = yM\(_{0}\), determine M\(_{0}\).

xi. State two precautions taken to obtain accurate results.

(b) i. Define the moment of a force about a point.

ii. A uniform metre rule is suspended by an inextensible string at its centre of gravity. If a mass of 60g is placed at the 25cm mark, what mass should be placed at the 80cm mark of the metre rule to balance it horizontally?

(a)

**Place the metre rule on the knife-edge**and adjust it until it balances horizontally. Read and record the point G where the metre rule balances horizontally.**Suspend the metre rule at G**with the aid of the inextensible string provided and attach the string to the retort support. Keep the string attached to this point throughout the experiment.**Attach the mass M**of the metre rule. Determine the distance of y from G. Keep M_{0}at the 80cm mark_{0}at this position throughout the experiment.