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**Question 1**
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A moving body accelerates when it

**Question 2**
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A battery of e.m.f. 12.0V and internal resistance0.5\(\Omega\) is connected to 1.5\(\Omega\) and 4.0\(\Omega\) series resistor. Calculate the terminal voltage of the battery.

**Question 3**
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When table salt is added to ice, the melting point of the ice

**Answer Details**

When table salt (sodium chloride) is added to ice, it lowers the melting point of the ice. This is because salt dissolves in the thin layer of water on the surface of the ice, forming a saltwater solution. The saltwater solution has a lower freezing point than pure water, so it requires a lower temperature to freeze. As a result, the ice melts at a lower temperature when salt is added, leading to a lowering of the melting point. This phenomenon is called freezing point depression.

**Question 4**
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A machine of efficiency 80% is used to lift a box. If the effort applied by the machine is twice the weight of the box. Calculate the velocity ratio of the machine

**Question 5**
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Which of the following types of types of motion will be produced when a pair of equal and opposite non-collinear parallel forces acts on a body?

**Answer Details**

When a pair of equal and opposite non-collinear parallel forces act on a body, a rotational motion will be produced. This is because the two forces will cause a torque or moment about the center of mass of the body, which will result in the body rotating around that point. The magnitude of the torque is proportional to the product of the forces and the perpendicular distance between them, which is also known as the lever arm. Therefore, the greater the force or the longer the lever arm, the greater the torque and the faster the body will rotate. The other options, such as vibrational motion, random motion, and translational motion, do not apply in this scenario because the forces are not acting in such a way as to cause those types of motion.

**Question 6**
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A wire of resistivity 4.40 x 10^{-5}\(\Omega\) cm has a cross sectional area of 7.50 x 10^{-4} cm^{2}. Calculate the length of the wire that will be required to make a 4.0\(\Omega\) resistor

**Answer Details**

The resistance of a wire can be calculated using the formula R = \(\frac{\rho L}{A}\), where R is the resistance, \(\rho\) is the resistivity of the wire, L is the length of the wire, and A is the cross-sectional area of the wire. In this problem, we are given the resistivity of the wire and the cross-sectional area of the wire. We are also told that the wire needs to have a resistance of 4.0\(\Omega\). We can rearrange the formula to solve for L: L = \(\frac{AR}{\rho}\) Substituting the values given in the question, we have: L = \(\frac{(7.50 \times 10^{-4} cm^{2}) (4.0 \Omega)}{4.40 \times 10^{-5} \Omega cm}\) = 68.18 cm Therefore, the length of the wire required to make a 4.0\(\Omega\) resistor is 68.18 cm. The correct option is: 68.18cm.

**Question 7**
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Two isotopes of uranium are designed as \(^{238}U\) and \(^{235}U\). The numbers 238 and 235 represent their

**Answer Details**

The numbers 238 and 235 represent the nucleon numbers of the two isotopes of uranium, namely \(^{238}U\) and \(^{235}U\). The nucleon number represents the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Therefore, \(^{238}U\) has a nucleus consisting of 238 protons and neutrons, and \(^{235}U\) has a nucleus consisting of 235 protons and neutrons. Atomic number, on the other hand, represents the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, and proton number and neutron number are not commonly used scientific terms.

**Question 8**
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An isolated metal sphere of radius R, carrying an electric charge Q, is situated in the medium of relative permitivity, E^{r}. A test charge is placed at a point p, distance r from the surface of the sphere. Let E^{o} represent the permitivity of free space. The electric potential at p is given by the expression

**Question 9**
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In which of the following states of matter do the molecules vibrate about their mean positions?

**Question 11**
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A body of mass 5kg movimg with a velocity of 30ms^{-1} due east is suddenly hit by another body and changes its velocity to 50ms^{-1} in the same direction. Calculate the magnitude of the impulse received.

**Answer Details**

To calculate the magnitude of the impulse received by the body, we need to use the impulse-momentum theorem, which states that the impulse applied to a body is equal to the change in momentum of the body. The momentum of an object is defined as the product of its mass and velocity, i.e., P = mv, where P is momentum, m is mass, and v is velocity. The change in momentum (ΔP) of the body can be calculated as the difference between the final momentum (P_{f}) and the initial momentum (P_{i}), i.e., ΔP = P_{f} - P_{i}. In this case, the initial momentum of the body is given by P_{i} = mv = 5 kg x 30 m/s = 150 kg m/s (due east), and the final momentum is given by P_{f} = mv = 5 kg x 50 m/s = 250 kg m/s (due east). Therefore, the change in momentum (ΔP) of the body is: ΔP = P_{f} - P_{i} = 250 kg m/s - 150 kg m/s = 100 kg m/s (due east). The magnitude of the impulse (J) received by the body is equal to the change in momentum (ΔP), i.e., J = ΔP = 100 kg m/s. Therefore, the answer is option A: 100 Ns.

**Question 12**
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The period of a simple pendulum of length 80.0cm was found to have doubled when the length of the pendulum was increased by X. Calculate X.

**Answer Details**

The period of a simple pendulum depends on its length. The relationship between the period (T) of a simple pendulum and its length (L) is given by the formula: T = 2π√(L/g), where g is the acceleration due to gravity. If the period of the pendulum doubles, then the new period (T') is twice the original period (T): T' = 2T = 4π√(L/g). If the length of the pendulum is increased by X, then the new length (L') is: L' = L + X. Substituting this into the formula for the new period gives: T' = 2π√((L+X)/g) Since T' = 2T, we can equate the two expressions for T' and simplify: 4π√(L/g) = 2π√((L+X)/g) Squaring both sides and canceling the common factor of 4π^{2}/g, we get: L = (L+X)/2 Solving for X gives: X = L Therefore, the length of the pendulum needs to be increased by 80.0 cm to double its period, so X = 80.0 cm. The answer is option D: 240.0 cm.

**Question 13**
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In a hydraulic press, a force of 40N is applied to the smaller priston of area 10cm^{2}. If the area of the larger piston is 200cm^{2}, calculate the force obtained

**Answer Details**

In a hydraulic press, the pressure exerted is constant throughout the system. The pressure exerted is given by the formula: Pressure = Force / Area The force is directly proportional to the product of the pressure and area. F ∝ P.A If F_{1} is the force applied on the smaller piston of area A_{1}, and F_{2} is the force on the larger piston of area A_{2}, then: F_{1} / A_{1} = F_{2} / A_{2} Rearranging the formula above to solve for F_{2}: F_{2} = F_{1} x (A_{2} / A_{1}) Substituting the values given in the question, we get: F_{2} = 40N x (200cm^{2} / 10cm^{2}) = 800N Therefore, the force obtained is 800N. The answer is (a) 800N.

**Question 14**
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as a bicycle Tyre was being pumped up, it was noticed that contrary to Boyle's law the volume increased as the pressure increased. The best explanation of this is that Boyle's law is only true for

**Question 15**
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An isolated metal sphere of radius R, carrying an electric charge Q, is situated in the medium of relative permitivity, E_{r}. A test charge is placed at a point p, distance r from the surface of the sphere. Let E_{o} represent the permitivity of free space. The magnitude of the electric field intensity at P is given by the expression

**Question 16**
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The main difference between between x-rays and \(\gamma-rays\) lies in their

**Question 17**
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Electric energy is measured in

**Answer Details**

Electric energy is measured in kilowatt-hour (kWh). A kilowatt-hour is a unit of energy equivalent to the energy used by a load of one kilowatt in one hour. This unit is commonly used by electric utility companies to measure the amount of energy consumed by households or businesses. An ampere is a unit of electric current, while a coulomb is a unit of electric charge. A kilowatt is a unit of power, which is the rate at which energy is consumed or produced. Therefore, none of these units are suitable for measuring electric energy.

**Question 18**
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Which of the following is used to measure relative humidity?

**Answer Details**

The instrument used to measure relative humidity is called a hygrometer. A hygrometer is a device that measures the amount of water vapor in the air or the humidity level. It measures the amount of moisture in the air by using two thermometers. One of the thermometers is dry while the other is kept wet. The difference in temperature between the two thermometers is then measured, and this difference is used to calculate the relative humidity of the air. Therefore, the correct option is (d) hygrometer.

**Question 19**
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When a conductor mounted on an insulating stand is charged and left for sometime, the conductor eventually loses all its charges. This is because the

**Answer Details**

When a conductor mounted on an insulating stand is charged and left for some time, the conductor eventually loses all its charges. This happens because the charges on the conductor attract opposite charges from the surrounding air, which neutralize the charge on the conductor. This process is called electrostatic discharge or simply discharge. As a result, the charges are dissipated, and the conductor becomes neutral again. Therefore, the correct option is "charges on the conductor are neutralized by opposite charges from the surrounding air".

**Question 20**
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An ammeter connected to an a.c circuit records 5.5. The peak current in the circuit is

**Answer Details**

In an AC circuit, the current is constantly changing direction and amplitude, and we use the root mean square (rms) value to measure the effective current flowing in the circuit. The peak value is the maximum value the current can reach, and it is equal to the square root of 2 times the rms value. So, in this case, we can use the formula: Peak value = sqrt(2) x rms value Given that the ammeter records 5.5, which is the rms value, we can calculate the peak value as follows: Peak value = sqrt(2) x 5.5 Peak value = 7.77 Rounded to one decimal place, the answer is 7.8A. Therefore, option A is the correct answer.

**Question 21**
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A body moving in a circle at constant speed has i. a velocity tangent to the circle ii. a constant kinetic energy ii. an acceleration directed towards the circmference of the circle ii. an acceleration directed towards the circumference of the circle. Which of the statements above are correct?

**Question 22**
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A stone of mass 0.5kg is dropped from a height of 12m. Calculate its maximum kinetic energy. [g = 10ms^{-1}]

**Answer Details**

When the stone is dropped, it gains potential energy due to its position above the ground. This potential energy is converted into kinetic energy as the stone falls towards the ground. The maximum kinetic energy of the stone will occur just before it hits the ground when all its potential energy has been converted to kinetic energy. The potential energy of the stone is given by the formula P.E. = mgh, where m is the mass of the stone, g is the acceleration due to gravity and h is the height from which it is dropped. Substituting the given values into the formula, we get: P.E. = (0.5 kg)(10 ms^-2)(12 m) = 60 J Since the maximum kinetic energy is equal to the potential energy at the maximum height, the maximum kinetic energy of the stone is also 60 J. Therefore, the correct option is (d) 60.0 J.

**Question 23**
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A boat is rocked by waves of speed 30ms^{-1} whose successive crest are 10m apart. Calculate the rate at which the boat recieves the waves

**Answer Details**

The rate at which the boat receives the waves is equal to the frequency of the waves. The distance between successive crests of the waves is 10m, which is also the wavelength of the wave. Therefore, the formula for the speed of the wave can be written as: speed = wavelength x frequency We are given the speed of the wave as 30m/s and the wavelength as 10m. Rearranging the formula above to solve for frequency gives: frequency = speed / wavelength Substituting the values we have: frequency = 30m/s / 10m = 3s^{-1} Therefore, the rate at which the boat receives the waves is 3s^{-1}, which is option (C).

**Question 24**
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A cell of e.m.f. 1.5V is connected in series with a resistor of resistance 3.0\(\Omega\). A voltmeter connected across the cell registers 0.9V. Calculate the internal resistance of the cell

**Answer Details**

The internal resistance of a cell can be calculated using the equation: r = (E - V)/I where r is the internal resistance of the cell, E is the e.m.f. of the cell, V is the voltage across the cell, and I is the current passing through the circuit. In this case, the e.m.f. of the cell is given as 1.5V, and the resistance of the resistor is 3.0\(\Omega\). Since the cell and the resistor are connected in series, the current passing through them will be the same. We can calculate the current using Ohm's law: I = V/R = 0.9V/3.0\(\Omega\) = 0.3A Now we can use the formula for the internal resistance: r = (E - V)/I = (1.5V - 0.9V)/0.3A = 2.0\(\Omega\) Therefore, the internal resistance of the cell is 2.0\(\Omega\). Answer option A is correct.

**Question 25**
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Which of the following is not a part of the electro-magnetic spectrum?

**Answer Details**

Alpha rays are not part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum includes all forms of electromagnetic radiation that differ in wavelength and frequency, including radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays. Alpha rays are actually alpha particles, which consist of two protons and two neutrons and are emitted by some types of radioactive materials. Alpha particles have a positive charge and are relatively large compared to other types of radiation, so they are not part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

**Question 26**
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The following properties of a solid are measured on earth i. weight ii. specific heat capacity iii. density. Which of the properties will hav a different value if measured in space?

**Answer Details**

The property that will have a different value if measured in space is (i) weight. Weight is the force with which an object is attracted towards the center of the earth due to gravity. In space, there is no gravity or the gravitational force is very weak compared to that on earth. Therefore, the weight of an object measured on earth will be different from the weight of the same object measured in space. On the other hand, specific heat capacity and density are intrinsic properties of a substance that do not depend on the gravitational force, so they will have the same value whether measured on earth or in space. Thus, the answer is (i) only.

**Question 27**
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A rod of initial lenght 2m at a temperature of 25^{o}C is heated to 80^{o}C. Calculate the increase in length of the rod if its linear expansivity is 4.0 x 10^{-3}K^{-1}

**Answer Details**

The increase in length of the rod can be calculated using the formula: ΔL = αLΔT where: ΔL = change in length α = linear expansivity coefficient L = initial length ΔT = change in temperature Substituting the given values, we have: ΔL = (4.0 x 10^-3 K^-1) x (2m) x (80°C - 25°C) ΔL = 0.44m Therefore, the increase in length of the rod is 0.44m. Note: When a material is heated, its length increases due to the expansion of its particles. The linear expansivity coefficient (α) represents the fractional change in length per unit change in temperature.

**Question 28**
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If the direction of the curent in a straight wire is reversed, the magnetic field

**Answer Details**

When an electric current flows through a straight wire, it generates a magnetic field around the wire. The direction of the magnetic field is dependent on the direction of the current flow. If the direction of the current flow is reversed, then the direction of the magnetic field will also be reversed. Therefore, the correct answer is: the magnetic field is oppositely directed.

**Question 29**
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Sound interference is necessary to produce the phenomenon of

**Answer Details**

Sound interference is necessary to produce the phenomenon of beats. Beats are produced when two sound waves of slightly different frequencies are superimposed on each other. The interference of these sound waves causes the sound intensity to oscillate, resulting in a periodic variation of loudness known as beats. These beats can be heard as a throbbing sound. The number of beats produced per second is equal to the difference in frequency between the two sound waves. The phenomenon of beats is used in tuning musical instruments to ensure they are in tune with each other.

**Question 30**
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A satellite in circular motion around the earth does not have

**Answer Details**

A satellite in circular motion around the earth does not have a uniform velocity. Even though its speed is constant, the direction of its velocity is constantly changing due to the centripetal force provided by the gravitational force of the earth. Therefore, it has an acceleration towards the center of the circle, which is equal in magnitude to the centripetal force acting on it.

**Question 31**
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Light travelling through a small pinhole usually does not make a shadow with a distinct sharp edge because of

**Answer Details**

The phenomenon that causes light travelling through a small pinhole to not make a shadow with a distinct sharp edge is called diffraction. Diffraction is the bending of waves around an obstacle or through an opening. When light waves pass through a small pinhole, they bend and spread out after passing through the hole. As a result, the edges of the shadow become blurred, and a distinct sharp edge cannot be seen. This effect is also observed when sound waves pass through small openings, such as in the case of musical instruments. Therefore, the correct option is "diffraction".

**Question 32**
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A resistor of resistance R is connected to a battery of negligible internal resistance. If a siilar resistor is connected in series with it the

**Question 33**
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An inductor of inductance 1.0H is connected in series with a capacitor of capacitance 2.0\(\mu F\) in an a.c. circuit. to resonate

**Question 34**
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The maximum displacement of a vibrating tunning fork is its

**Answer Details**

The maximum displacement of a vibrating tuning fork is its amplitude. In a vibrating system, amplitude refers to the maximum displacement of the vibrating object from its equilibrium or rest position. For a tuning fork, the amplitude refers to the maximum distance that the prongs of the fork move away from their resting position when they are vibrating. The amplitude of a tuning fork determines the intensity or loudness of the sound it produces. A larger amplitude produces a louder sound, while a smaller amplitude produces a softer sound. Therefore, the correct option is "amplitude".

**Question 35**
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Which of the following characteristics of light determines its colour?

**Answer Details**

The characteristic of light that determines its color is wavelength. Wavelength is the distance between consecutive peaks or troughs of a wave. Different colors of light have different wavelengths, with longer wavelengths corresponding to colors like red and orange, and shorter wavelengths corresponding to colors like blue and violet. So, when light interacts with an object and some wavelengths are absorbed while others are reflected or transmitted, the color that we perceive is determined by the wavelengths that are reflected or transmitted to our eyes. Therefore, the wavelength is responsible for the color of light we see.

**Question 36**
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A concave mirror forms a magnified and errect image only when the object is placed

**Answer Details**

A concave mirror forms an image of an object when light rays from the object are reflected off the mirror. The image formed can either be magnified or reduced in size, and it can be erect or inverted depending on where the object is placed in relation to the mirror. In this question, we are told that the concave mirror forms a magnified and erect image. For this to happen, the object must be placed between the focus and the pole of the mirror. This is because, in a concave mirror, light rays coming parallel to the principal axis are reflected and converge at the focus. When an object is placed between the focus and the pole of the mirror, the reflected rays will still converge and form a real image that is magnified and erect. If the object is placed at the focus, the reflected rays will be parallel, and no image will be formed. If the object is placed beyond the radius of curvature, the image formed will be real, but it will be inverted. If the object is placed at the center of curvature, the image formed will be real, inverted, and the same size as the object.

**Question 37**
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A thin lens is placed 50cm from an illustrated object. The image produced has linear magnification of \(\frac{1}{4}\). Calculate the power of the lens in dioptres

**Question 38**
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The angle of incidence of a ray of light on a plane mirror is 55^{o}. Determine the angle between the reflected ray and the mirror

**Question 39**
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An electron of mass 9.1 x 10^{-31} kg moves with a speed of 10^{7}ms^{-1}. Calculate the wavelength of the associates wave[h = 6.6 x 10^{-34}Js]

**Answer Details**

The wavelength of the associated wave of a moving particle can be determined using the de Broglie equation, which relates the particle's momentum to its wavelength: λ = h / p where λ is the wavelength, h is Planck's constant, and p is the momentum of the particle. We can determine the momentum of the electron using the formula: p = m * v where p is the momentum, m is the mass, and v is the velocity. Substituting the given values, we get: p = (9.1 x 10^-31 kg) * (10^7 ms^-1) = 9.1 x 10^-24 kgms^-1 Substituting p into the de Broglie equation, we get: λ = h / p = (6.6 x 10^-34 Js) / (9.1 x 10^-24 kgms^-1) = 7.25 x 10^-11 m Therefore, the wavelength of the associated wave is 7.25 x 10^-11 m. The correct option is (c) 7.25 x 10^-11 m.

**Question 40**
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Two forces 6N and 8N, act eastwards and northwards respectively on a body. Calculate the magnitude of their equilibrant

**Answer Details**

When two forces act on a body, their resultant force can be calculated using vector addition. The equilibrant is the force required to balance the two forces and bring the body into a state of equilibrium. It has the same magnitude as the resultant force but acts in the opposite direction. To calculate the equilibrant, we need to find the resultant force of the two given forces. We can do this by drawing a vector diagram or using trigonometry. Using trigonometry, we can find the magnitude of the resultant force as follows: \begin{align*} F_{\text{resultant}} &= \sqrt{(6\text{N})^2 + (8\text{N})^2} \\ &= \sqrt{36\text{N}^2 + 64\text{N}^2} \\ &= \sqrt{100\text{N}^2} \\ &= 10\text{N} \end{align*} The equilibrant has the same magnitude as the resultant force but acts in the opposite direction. Therefore, the magnitude of the equilibrant is also 10N. So, the correct answer is 10N.

**Question 41**
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Which of the following factors affect the rate of evaporation of a liquid? i. Exposed surface area ii Temperature of the surroundings iii. Thermal capacity of the liquid iv. Relative humidity of the surroundings

**Question 42**
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A body of volume 0.046m^{3} is immersed in a liquid of density 980kgm^{-3} with \(\frac{3}{4}\) of its volume submerged. Calculate the upthrust on the body. [g = 10ms^{-2}]

**Answer Details**

When an object is immersed in a fluid, it experiences an upward force called buoyant force or upthrust. This force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. In this case, the volume of the object submerged in the fluid is \(\frac{3}{4}\) of its total volume. So, the volume of fluid displaced by the object is \(\frac{3}{4}\) x 0.046m^{3} = 0.0345m^{3} The weight of this displaced fluid can be calculated as: mass = density x volume = 980kgm^{-3} x 0.0345m^{3} = 33.81kg weight = mass x g = 33.81kg x 10ms^{-2} = 338.1N Therefore, the upthrust on the body is 338.1N. So, the correct answer is (C) 338.10N.

**Question 43**
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A faulty thermometer registers 102.5^{o}C t 100^{o}C. If the thermometer has no zero hour, what will it register at 55^{o}C?

**Question 44**
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Which of the following properties of a steel bar can be measured in terms of the dimension of length only?

**Question 45**
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It takes 4 minutes to boil a quantity of water using an electrical heating coil. How long will it take to boil the same quantity of water using the same coil if the current is doubled? [Neglect any external heat losses]

**Answer Details**

If the current is doubled, the heating power will also double, which means that the coil will generate twice as much heat per unit of time. Since the amount of water to be boiled is the same, the amount of heat needed to raise its temperature to boiling point will also be the same. However, with twice the heating power, the time required to deliver that amount of heat will be halved. Therefore, the time it will take to boil the water using the doubled current will be half of the time it took with the original current, which is 2 minutes. So the answer is 2 minutes.

**Question 46**
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(a) State** two** essential differences between a moving coil galvanometer and a d.c. generator.

(b) Explain the term eddy currents and state **two** devices in which the currents are applied.

(c) State the principle on which the potentiometer is based when it is functioning.

(d) A source of e.m.f. 110 V and frequency 60Hz is connected to a resistor, an inductor and a capacitor in series. When the current in the capacitor is 2A, the potential differences across the resistor is 80 V and that across the inductor is 40 V. Draw the vector diagram of the potential differences across the inductor, the capacitor and the resistor.

Calculate the:

(i) potential difference across the capacitor;

(ii) capacitance of the capacitor;

(iii) inductance of the inductor. [π = 3.14]

None

**Question 47**
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Explain the following terms:

*(a) tensile stress;*

*(b)Young’s modulus*

None

**Answer Details**

None

**Question 48**
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(a) State Faraday’s second law of electrolysis.

(b) An electric charge of 9.6 x 10\(^4\) C liberates 1 mole of substance containing 6.0 x 10\(^{23}\) atoms. Determine the value of the electronic charge

None

**Question 49**
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Explain why mercury does not wet glass while water does.

None

**Answer Details**

None

**Question 50**
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(a) State **two** differences between a sound wave and a radio wave.

(b) Explain why a vibrating tuning fork sounds louder when its stem is pressed against a table top than when held in air.

(c)State **two** conditions necessary for the:

- production of stationary wave in a medium;
- formation of interference wave patterns;
- occurrence of total internal reflection of a wave.

(d) A ray of light is incident on one face of an equilateral glass prism.

- Draw a ray diagram to show the path of the ray through the prism.
- Calculate the refractive index of the glass if the angle of minimum deviation is 41\(^o\).

None

**Answer Details**

None

**Question 51**
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a) Define diffusion.

(b) State **two** applications of electrical conduction through gases.

None

**Question 53**
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A particle is dropped from a vertical height h and falls freely for a time t. With the aid of a sketch, explain how h varies with

(a) t;

(b) t\(^2\).

None

**Question 54**
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Give three observations in support of de Broglie's assumption that moving particles behave like waves

None

**Answer Details**

None

**Question 55**
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A particle is projected horizontally at 15ms\(^{-1}\) from a height of 20m.

Calculate the horizontal distance covered by the particle just before hitting the ground.

[g = 10 ms\(^{-2}\)]

None

**Answer Details**

None

**Question 56**
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**TEST OF PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE QUESTION**

- You are provided with two meter rules and other necessary apparatus.
- Place one of the rules on a knife edge and determine its centre of gravity C. Mark this pos with a piece of chalk.
- Read and record the mass M\(_{R}\) of the metre rule written on the reverse side of it.
- Attach the mass M= 100g firmly to the rule AB at C using sellotape.
- Suspend the metre rule by two parallel threads of length h = 40 cm each at the 10 cm marks. Ensure that the graduated face to the metre rule is facing upwards.
- Set the rule AB into a small angular oscillation about the vertical axis through its centre of gravity.
- Determine the time, t for 20 complete oscillations. Evaluate the period T and T\(^{2}\)
- Read and record the value of d in meters.
- Keeping d constant throughout the experiment, repeat the procedure for other values of h = 50, 60, 70, and 80 cm. In each case determine the corresponding values of f T and T. Tabulate your reading. (x) Plot a graph of T on the vertical axis and h on the horizontal axis.
- Determine the slope S, of the graph. Evaluate k =s, where Q =2 S, Q 250P
- State two precautions taken to ensure accurate results.

(b)i. Define the term couple as it relates to rotational or oscillatory systems.

ii. Give two practical application of a couple in everyday life.

None

**Question 57**
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(a) Briefly explain the following terms:

(i) emission line spectra;

(ii) line absorption spectra.

(b) Draw a labeled diagram showing the structure of a simple type of photocell and explain its mode of operation.

(c) State **two**

(i) reasons to show that x-rays are waves;

(ii) uses of x-rays other than in medicine.

(d) An electron jumps from an energy level of -1.6*eV* to one of -1.4 *eV* in an atom. Calculate the energy and wavelength of the emitted radiation. [ h = 6.6 x 10\(^{-34}\) *Js*; c = 3.00 x 10\(^8\) *ms*\(^{-1}\); *eV* = 1.6 x 10\(^{-19}\) J ]

None

**Question 58**
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**TEST OF PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE QUESTION**

- You are provided with a measuring cylinder, two different tins labeled C and D, a thermometer, and other necessary materials.
- Use the measuring cylinder provided to measure 100 cm of water and pour it into the tin label.
- Heat the water in the tin almost to boiling (90°C).
- Remove the tin and place it on a cork or wooden stand.
- Insert the thermometer into the tin and record the temperature of the water every minute starting from 85°C until the temperature falls to 60°C.
- Repeat the experiment with the tin labeled D using exactly the same volume of water and temperature range. Tabulate your readings.
- On the same graph sheet and using the same axis and scales, plot two graphs of temperature on the vertical axis and time on the horizontal axis from the readings obtained using tins C and D.
- Label the graphs appropriately as C and D to correspond with the tins used.
- From each graph, read off the time taken to cool from 85°C to 65°C.
- State two precautions taken to ensure accurate results.

(b)i. Explain how heat losses by radiation and convection are minimized in a vacuum flask.

ii. State four factors that affect the rate of evaporation of a liquid in an open container.

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**Question 59**
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a) List **two** properties of cathode rays.

(b) Explain how the intensity and energy of cathode rays may be increased

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**Question 60**
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(a) Explain what is meant by cations

(b) Draw and label an electrolytic cell

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**Question 61**
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(a) Explain why it is not advisable to sterilize a clinical thermometer in boiling water at normal atmospheric pressure.

(b) State the effect of an increase in pressure on the

(i) boiling point; and

(ii) melting point of water.

(c) Diagram:

The graph shown above is that of the saturated vapour pressure (s.v.p.) of water against temperature.

Pure water is known to boil at 100\(^o\)C and at an atmospheric pressure of 760 mmHg. What general conclusion can be drawn from the information given above?

d) A thread of mercury of length 20 cm is used to trap some air in a capillary tube with uniform cross-sectional area and closed at one end. With the tube vertical and the open end uppermost, the length of the trapped air column is 15cm. Calculate the length of the air column when the tube is held:

i) horizontally;

ii) vertically with the open end underneath. [Atmospheric pressure = 76 *cmHg *]

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**Question 62**
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a) Given a retort stand and clamp, a stout pin, a simple pendulum and a pencil, describe how you would use these apparatus to determine the centre of gravity of an irregularly shaped piece of cardboard of a moderate size.

(b) Using a suitable diagram, explain how the following can be obtained from a velocity-time graph:

(i) acceleration;

(ii) total distance covered.

(c ) A body at rest is given an initial uniform acceleration of 6.0 ms\(^{-2}\) for 20s after which the acceleration is reduced to 4.0 ms\(^{-2}\) for the next 10s.

The body maintains the speed attained for 30s.

Draw the velocity-time graph of the motion using the information given above. From the graph, calculate the:

- maximum speed attained during the motion;
- total distance traveled during the first 30 s;
- average speed during the same time interval as in (ii) above.

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**Question 63**
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**TEST OF PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE QUESTION**

- Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram above.
**PQ**is a potentiometer wire 100 cm long and R is a standard resistor of 5\(\Omega\). - With the jockey
**J not**making contact**with PQ**, close the switch. Read and record the ammeter reading**I**. Open the switch. - Use the jockey to make contact with
**PQ**at the 20cm mark such that**PJ = I = 20 cm**. Close the switch, read and record the valueof the ammeter. Evaluate*I*\(_{i}\)*I*\(^{-1}\). - Repeat the procedure for other values of
*I*= 35, 50, 65, and 80 cm. In each case, determine the corresponding values of, and*I*\(_{i}\). Tabulate your readings.*I*\(^{-1}\) - Plot a graph of
the vertical axis and*I*\(^{i}\) on, on the horizontal axis, starting both axes from the origin (0, 0).*I*\(_{i}\) - From your graph deduce the value, of
*I*\(_{o}\) of*I*\(_{i}\), when*I*\(^{-1}\)= 0. - Evaluate I\(_{o}\)e
- State two precautions taken to ensure accurate results.

(b)) Define the e. m.f. of a battery

ii. A cell **X **e.m.f. 1.00 V is balanced by a length of 40.0 cm on a potentiometer wire. Another cell Y is balanced by a length of 60.0 cm on the same wire. Calculate the e.m.f. of Y.

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**Answer Details**

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