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**Question 1**
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If an object is placed between two parallel plane mirrors with their reflecting surfaces facing each other, how many images of the object will be formed?

**Answer Details**

When an object is placed between two parallel plane mirrors with their reflecting surfaces facing each other, an infinite number of images of the object will be formed. Each image formed by one mirror acts as an object for the other mirror, and the process continues indefinitely, with each mirror producing a new image of the previous image. The images will be arranged in a regular pattern, with each image being smaller and dimmer than the previous one, as some light is lost with each reflection. Therefore, the correct answer is "Infinite."

**Question 2**
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A magnetic field is said to exist at a point if a force is

**Answer Details**

A magnetic field is said to exist at a point if a force is exerted on a moving charge at the point. A magnetic field is created by a magnet or by the movement of electric charges, such as in a current-carrying wire. When a charged particle moves through a magnetic field, it experiences a force perpendicular to both the direction of motion and the direction of the magnetic field. This force is what causes the particle to change its direction of motion, and is what we refer to as a magnetic force. So, the correct option is "exerted on a moving charge at the point".

**Question 3**
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A ray incident on a glass prism undergoes minimum deviation when the

**Answer Details**

When a ray of light passes through a glass prism, it bends or refracts. The amount of bending depends on the angle at which the light enters the prism. The angle of deviation is the angle between the incident ray and the emergent ray, measured from the direction of the incident ray. For a given prism and wavelength of light, there is a specific angle of incidence that produces the minimum angle of deviation. This angle of incidence is the angle at which the incident ray passes through the prism symmetrically, meaning it enters and exits the prism at the same angle. Therefore, the statement that is true is "the incident angle is equal to the angle of emergence". This is because when the angle of incidence equals the angle of emergence, the angle of deviation is minimized, resulting in the minimum amount of bending of the light.

**Question 4**
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he stylus of a phonograph record exerts a force of 7.7 x 10-2N on a groove of radius 10-5m. Compute the pressure exerted by the stylus on the groove

**Answer Details**

The pressure exerted by the stylus on the groove can be computed using the formula: pressure = force / area where force is the force exerted by the stylus on the groove, and area is the contact area between the stylus and the groove. We are given that the force exerted by the stylus is 7.7 x 10^-2 N, and the radius of the groove is 10^-5 m. The contact area between the stylus and the groove is the area of a circle with radius 10^-5 m, which is given by: area = πr^2 = π(10^-5)^2 = 3.14 x 10^-10 m^2 Substituting the values into the formula, we get: pressure = 7.7 x 10^-2 N / 3.14 x 10^-10 m^2 = 2.45 x 10^8 N/m^2 Therefore, the pressure exerted by the stylus on the groove is 2.45 x 10^8 N/m^2. The correct option is "2.45 x 10^8 N/m^2."

**Question 5**
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A satellite is in a parking orbit if its period is

**Answer Details**

A satellite is said to be in a parking orbit if its period is exactly equal to the period of the earth as it turns its own orbit;. which is about 24hrs

**Question 6**
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In the diagram above, what would happen to the current I, if another resistor, R2, is connected in parallel to R1?

**Answer Details**

When another resistor, R2, is connected in parallel to R1, the total resistance of the circuit decreases. As a result, the current I in the circuit will increase because the current flowing through each resistor is inversely proportional to the resistance. Therefore, option C is correct: "It will increase because the effective resistance will decrease."

**Question 7**
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By what factor will the size of an object placed 10cm from a convex lens be increased if the image is seen on a screen placed 25cm from the lens?

**Answer Details**

This question is related to the magnification produced by a convex lens. Magnification is the ratio of the size of the image produced by a lens to the size of the object placed in front of the lens. In this question, we are given that the object is placed 10 cm from the lens and the image is formed at a distance of 25 cm from the lens. To find the magnification produced by the lens, we can use the formula: magnification = image size / object size = image distance / object distance We are not given the size of the object, but we can still find the magnification by using the given distances. image distance = 25 cm object distance = 10 cm So, the magnification produced by the lens is: magnification = image distance / object distance = 25 cm / 10 cm = 2.5 This means that the image formed by the lens is 2.5 times larger than the object placed in front of it. Therefore, the answer is option B: 2.5.

**Question 8**
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In a fission process, the decrease in mass is 0.01%. How much energy could be obtained from the fission of 0.1g of the material

**Answer Details**

The energy that can be obtained from a nuclear fission reaction is given by Einstein's famous equation: E = mc^2, where E is the energy released, m is the decrease in mass, and c is the speed of light. In this question, the decrease in mass is 0.01% of the initial mass. To calculate the decrease in mass, we need to convert the percentage to a decimal: 0.01% = 0.0001. Therefore, the decrease in mass is: 0.0001 x 0.1g = 0.00001g Now we can use Einstein's equation to calculate the energy released: E = (0.00001g) x (299792458 m/s)^2 E = 898755178.736 J This is the total energy that can be obtained from the fission of 0.1g of the material. However, the question asks for the amount of energy that could be obtained from this amount of material, so we need to divide the total energy by the mass: E = 898755178.736 J / 0.1g E = 8.98755178736 x 10^9 J/g Therefore, the answer is 9.0 x 10^9 J.

**Question 9**
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The operation of an optical fibre is based on the principal of

**Answer Details**

Optical fibers are thin, transparent fibers made of high-quality glass or plastic that transmit light signals over long distances by the principle of total internal reflection. When light travels through the fiber, it reflects off the walls of the fiber due to the phenomenon of refraction, which allows the light to propagate over long distances without much attenuation. Hence, the operation of an optical fiber is based on the principle of refraction of light.

**Question 10**
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At what position will an object be placed in front of a concave mirror in order to obtain an image at infinity?

**Answer Details**

To obtain an image at infinity in front of a concave mirror, the object must be placed at the focal point. Therefore, the correct option is "at the principal focus." When an object is placed at the focal point of a concave mirror, the light rays coming from the object are reflected parallel to the principal axis. As a result, the reflected rays never converge to a point, and the image appears at infinity. Placing the object at any other position will result in a real, inverted image formed at a specific distance from the mirror, and not at infinity. Therefore, to obtain an image at infinity in front of a concave mirror, the object must be placed at the principal focus.

**Question 11**
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A hose of cross-sectional area 0.5m2 is used to discharge water from a water tanker at a velocity of 60ms-1 in 20s into a container. If the container is filled completely, the volume of the container is

**Answer Details**

The question gives us information about a hose of cross-sectional area and the velocity of water discharge into a container. We can use the formula: Volume = Area x Velocity x Time Area = 0.5m² (given) Velocity = 60ms⁻¹ (given) Time = 20s (given) Volume = 0.5 x 60 x 20 Volume = 600m³ Therefore, the volume of the container is 600m³. So, the correct option is: - 600m³

**Question 12**
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In a semi conductor junction diode, as the depletion or barrier layer is forward-biased, the layer

**Question 13**
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The major difference between a pure semiconductor and a pure metal is that

**Answer Details**

The major difference between a pure semiconductor and a pure metal is that the resistance of metals increases with temperature, while for semiconductors, it is the reverse. In other words, as the temperature of a metal increases, its resistance also increases, while for semiconductors, the resistance decreases with increasing temperature. This property is what makes semiconductors useful in electronic devices like transistors, diodes, and solar cells, where the electrical conductivity can be controlled by varying the temperature or by doping with impurities.

**Question 14**
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On a fairly cool rainy day when the temperature is 20oC, the length of a steel railroad track is 20m. What will be its length on a hot a dry day when the temperature is 40oC?

[coefficient of linear expansion of steel = 11 x 10-6K-1]

**Answer Details**

The length of a steel railroad track changes with temperature due to thermal expansion or contraction. When the temperature increases, the length of the track will also increase. The amount of expansion depends on the coefficient of linear expansion of steel, which is given in the question as 11 x 10^-6 K^-1. To find the new length of the track on a hot and dry day, we can use the formula: ΔL = αLΔT where ΔL is the change in length, α is the coefficient of linear expansion, L is the original length, and ΔT is the change in temperature. In this case, the original length L is 20 meters, the change in temperature ΔT is (40-20) = 20 degrees Celsius, and the coefficient of linear expansion α is 11 x 10^-6 K^-1. Substituting these values into the formula, we get: ΔL = (11 x 10^-6 K^-1) x (20m) x (20°C) = 0.0044m Therefore, the new length of the track on the hot and dry day is: L' = L + ΔL = 20m + 0.0044m = 20.004m So the answer is 20.004m.

**Question 15**
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In the diagram above, if each of the resistors can dissipate a maximum of 18W without becoming excessively heated, what is the maximum power the circuit can dissipate?

**Answer Details**

From the above diagram, if each of the resistors can dissipate a maximum of 18W, the from the relation power, P = I2R, the current in the 2Ω series resistor is given by:

I2 = P/R = 18/2 = 9 => I = √9 = 3A

The effective parallel arrangement of the two 2Ω resistors: 1/R = 1/2 + 1/2 = 1Ω

∴ Total resistance in the circuit = 1 + 2 = 3Ω

current flowing the circuit = 3A

∴ Maxi. power = P = I2R = 32 x 3 = 27W

**Question 16**
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An electron makes a transition from a certain energy level Ek to the ground state E0. If the frequency of emission is 8.0 x 1014Hz The energy emitted is

**Answer Details**

When an electron transitions from a higher energy level to a lower energy level, it emits energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation, such as light. The frequency of the emitted radiation is related to the energy difference between the two energy levels by the equation: ΔE = hf where ΔE is the energy difference between the two energy levels, h is Planck's constant, and f is the frequency of the emitted radiation. In this problem, the electron is transitioning from energy level E_{k} to the ground state E_{0}. The energy difference between these two levels is given by: ΔE = E_{k} - E_{0} We are given the frequency of the emitted radiation as 8.0 x 10^{14} Hz. We can use the above equation to calculate the energy difference ΔE: ΔE = hf = (6.626 x 10^-34 J s) x (8.0 x 10^14 Hz) = 5.301 x 10^-19 J The energy emitted is the same as the energy difference ΔE between the two energy levels. Therefore, the energy emitted is 5.28 x 10^-19 J, which is closest to.

**Question 17**
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A turning fork of frequency 340Hz is vibrated just above a cylindrical tube of height 1.2m. If water is slowly poured into the tube, at what maximum height will resonance occur.

[speed of sound in air = 340ms-1]

**Answer Details**

In vibration in a closed pipe/tube, the first resonance occurs at a position L = V/4f,

when reading from the top of the tube,

L1 = | _340 |

4 x 340 |

= 0.25m

L2 = 3V/4f

L2 = | 3 x 340 |

4 x 340 |

= 0.75m

L3 = 5V/4f

L3 = | 5 x 340 |

4 x 340 |

= 1.25m

However, the effective length of the tube is 1.2m. Thus reading from below, the first position of resonance will be 1.20 - 0.75m = 0.45m

**Question 18**
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A wire of 5Ω resistance is drawn out so that its new length is two times the original length. If the resistivity of the wire remains the same and the cross-sectional area is halved, the new resistance is

**Answer Details**

When a wire is stretched, its resistance increases as its cross-sectional area decreases. Similarly, if the wire is compressed, its resistance decreases as the cross-sectional area increases. Also, the resistance of a wire is directly proportional to its length, which means that as the length of a wire increases, its resistance also increases. Here, the wire is drawn out so that its new length is two times the original length. Since the resistivity of the wire remains the same, the resistance of the wire is proportional to its new length. Therefore, the new resistance is 2 times the original resistance. Next, the cross-sectional area of the wire is halved. Since resistance is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of a wire, the new resistance is twice the original resistance. Combining the two effects, the new resistance is (2 x 2) times the original resistance, which is 4 times the original resistance. Therefore, the new resistance is 5Ω x 4 = 20Ω. Hence, the answer is 20Ω.

**Question 19**
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A force of 100N was used to kick a football of mass 0.8kg. Find the velocity with which the ball moves if it takes 0.8s to be kicked

**Answer Details**

The velocity with which the football moves can be found using the formula: v = (F*t) / m where F is the force applied, t is the time for which the force is applied, and m is the mass of the football. Substituting the given values, we get: v = (100 * 0.8) / 0.8 = 100 m/s Therefore, the velocity with which the ball moves is 100 m/s. Note that the answer is not one of the given options. The correct answer is 100 m/s, which is a very high velocity for a football and is unlikely to be achieved in practice.

**Question 20**
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An electron of charge 1.6 x 10-19C is accelerated between two metal plates. If the kinetics energy of the electron is 4.8 x 10-17J, the potential difference between the plate is

**Answer Details**

In general, if a charged particle is accelerated between two metal plates/a region by potential difference V volts, the work done on the charge, given by the product of the charge and the potential difference, is equal to the kinetic energy of the charge

Thus eV = K.E

1.6 x 10-19 x V = 4.8 x 10-17

∴ V = | 4.8 x 10-17 |

1.6 x 10-19 |

= 300V

**Question 21**
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A 90cm uniform lever has a load of 30N suspended at 15cm from one of its ends. If the fulcrum is at the center of gravity, the force that must be applied at its other end to keep it in horizontal equilibrium is

**Answer Details**

Since the lever is a uniform one, its center of gravity will be acting half way (i.e 45cm)

∴from the principle of moments,

F x 45 = 30 x 30

∴ F = (30 x 30) / 45 = 20N

**Question 22**
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A 2000W electric heater is used to heat a metal object of mass 5kg initially at 10oC. If a temperature rise of 30oC is obtained after 10min, the heat capacity of the material is

**Answer Details**

2000W heater → 2000J/S

=> Heat supplied by the heater within 10 min

(600 seconds) = 2000 x 600

= 1200000J

∴ Heat capacity MC = 1200000/30

= 4000J/C

Heat capacity = 4.0 x 104J/C

**Question 23**
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Given that young's modulus for aluminium is 7.0 x 1010Nm-2 and density is 2.7 x 103kgm-3 find the speed of the sound produced if a solid bar is struck at one end with a hammer

**Answer Details**

The speed of sound in a solid bar depends on the Young's modulus and density of the material. The formula for the speed of sound in a solid bar is: v = √(Y/ρ) where v is the speed of sound, Y is the Young's modulus, and ρ is the density. Substituting the given values for Young's modulus and density of aluminium, we get: v = √(7.0 x 10^10 Nm^-2 / 2.7 x 10^3 kgm^-3) Simplifying the expression inside the square root, we get: v = √(2.6 x 10^7 m^2s^-2) Taking the square root, we get: v = 5100 ms^-1 Therefore, the speed of sound produced if a solid bar of aluminium is struck at one end with a hammer is 5100 ms^-1. The correct option is (A) 5.1 x 10^3 ms^-1.

**Question 24**
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A test tube of radius 1.0cm is loaded to 8.8g. If is placed upright in water, find the depth to which it would sink

**Answer Details**

The depth to which the test tube sinks in water depends on the buoyant force acting on it, which in turn depends on the weight of water displaced by the test tube. The weight of water displaced is equal to the weight of the test tube, so we can use the density of water and the weight of the test tube to find the volume of water displaced. The formula for the buoyant force is given by: Buoyant force = (density of fluid) x (volume of fluid displaced) x (acceleration due to gravity) The weight of the test tube is given by: Weight of test tube = (mass of test tube) x (acceleration due to gravity) Since the test tube is placed upright, the height to which it sinks is the same as the depth of water displaced. Therefore, the depth to which the test tube sinks in water is given by: Depth = (Weight of test tube) / (Buoyant force) Substituting the values given in the question and simplifying, we get: Depth = (Weight of test tube) / ((density of water) x (volume of water displaced) x (acceleration due to gravity)) Depth = (0.0088 kg x 9.8 m/s^2) / ((1000 kg/m^3) x (pi x (0.01 m)^2 x d) x (9.8 m/s^2)) where 'd' is the depth to which the test tube sinks in meters. Solving for 'd', we get: d = 0.0282 m or 2.82 cm Therefore, the depth to which the test tube sinks in water is approximately 2.8 cm. So, the correct option is: 2.8cm.

**Question 25**
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A ray of light is incident on an equilateral triangular glass prism of refractive index 3/2, Calculate the angle through which the ray is minimally deviated in the prism

**Answer Details**

For the equilateral glass prism A = 600

32Sin(Dm+602)(602)=( Sin Dm+602)0.5⟹Dm=37.2∘

**Question 26**
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The count rate of a radioactive material is 800 count/min. If the half-life of the material is 4 days, what would the count rate be in 16 days later

**Answer Details**

Radioactive decay is a process in which the unstable nucleus of a radioactive atom breaks down into a more stable nucleus and emits radiation in the form of particles or waves. The rate at which a radioactive substance decays is measured in terms of its half-life, which is the time taken for half of the original sample to decay. In this problem, the count rate of a radioactive material is 800 count/min and its half-life is 4 days. This means that in 4 days, the count rate will be halved to 400 count/min, and in another 4 days, it will be halved again to 200 count/min, and so on. Therefore, if we want to know what the count rate will be in 16 days later, we need to find out how many half-lives have occurred in that time. Since the half-life of the material is 4 days, there are 4 half-lives in 16 days. This means that the count rate will be halved 4 times, which is equivalent to dividing the initial count rate (800 count/min) by 2 four times. So, the count rate in 16 days later would be: 800 count/min ÷ 2 ÷ 2 ÷ 2 ÷ 2 = 50 count/min Therefore, the answer is 50 count / min.

**Question 27**
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When an alternating current given by I = 10sin (120π)t passes through a 12Ω resistor, the power dissipated in the resistor is

**Answer Details**

An a.c current is usually expressed as I = Io sin wt; and comparing this with the given current I = 10sin (120π)t, => Io = 10.

and power in an a.c circuit is given as:

P = I2R

= (102 x 12)

= 1200W

**Question 28**
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T(oC) | 0 | 5 | 10 | 15 | 20 | 40 | 60 |

S.V.P (mmHg) | 4.58 | 6.51 | 8.94 | 12.67 | 17.50 | 55.10 | 149.00 |

The table above shows the saturation vapour pressure against temperature in a certain town. If the vapour pressure in this town at 20oC is 10mmHg, what is the relative humidity?

**Answer Details**

To find the relative humidity, we need to first calculate the actual vapour pressure (e) at 20°C using the table. We know that the saturation vapour pressure (e_s) at 20°C is 10 mmHg, but we need to determine the actual vapour pressure to calculate the relative humidity. From the table, we can see that the saturation vapour pressure at 20°C is 17.50 mmHg. Since the actual vapour pressure is given as 10 mmHg, we can calculate the relative humidity using the following formula: Relative humidity = (actual vapour pressure/saturation vapour pressure) × 100% Relative humidity = (10/17.50) × 100% Relative humidity = 57.1% Therefore, the relative humidity in this town at 20°C is approximately 57.1%. So, option B (57.0%) is the correct answer.

**Question 29**
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If the uncertainty in the measurement of the position of a particle is 5.0 x 10-10m, the uncertainty in the momentum of the particle is

**Answer Details**

The uncertainty in the momentum of a particle can be calculated using Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which states that the product of the uncertainty in the position and the uncertainty in the momentum of a particle is greater than or equal to a constant value (h/4π), where h is Planck's constant. Therefore, the uncertainty in the momentum of the particle is given by: Δp ≥ h/4πΔx Where Δx is the uncertainty in the position of the particle. Substituting the given values, we get: Δp ≥ (6.626 x 10^-34 J s) / (4π x 5.0 x 10^-10 m) Δp ≥ 1.32 x 10^-24 Ns Therefore, the uncertainty in the momentum of the particle is 1.32 x 10^-24 Ns. Hence, the correct option is: - 1.32 x 10^-24 Ns

**Question 30**
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The force on a charge moving with velocity v in a magnetic field B is half of the maximum force when the angle between v and B is

**Answer Details**

When a charged particle moves in a magnetic field, it experiences a force called the magnetic force. This force is perpendicular to both the velocity of the particle and the magnetic field. The magnitude of the magnetic force is given by the equation F = qvBsinθ, where q is the charge of the particle, v is its velocity, B is the magnetic field, and θ is the angle between v and B. The maximum force is obtained when the angle θ is 90 degrees, because sin(90) = 1, so the force is given by F_max = qvB. According to the question, the force on the charge when θ is some other angle is half of the maximum force. So, we can write: F = (1/2) F_max F = (1/2) qvB We can rearrange this equation to find the angle θ: F = qvBsinθ = (1/2) qvB sinθ = (1/2) The only angle for which sinθ = (1/2) is 30 degrees. Therefore, the correct option is "30o".

**Question 31**
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A piece of stone attached to one end of a string is whirled round in a horizontal circle and the string suddenly cuts. The stone will fly off in a direction

**Answer Details**

When an object moves in a circle, it is constantly changing its direction. This means it is constantly accelerating, even if its speed is constant. This acceleration is directed towards the center of the circle and is called the centripetal acceleration. The centripetal force, which is the force required to keep an object moving in a circle, is also directed towards the center of the circle. When the string holding the stone is suddenly cut, the centripetal force that was keeping it in circular motion is removed. The stone will now continue in a straight line in accordance with Newton's first law of motion, which states that an object in motion will remain in motion in a straight line at a constant speed, unless acted upon by an external force. Since the stone is no longer being acted upon by the centripetal force, it will fly off in a direction that is tangent to the circular path. Therefore, the correct option is "tangential to the circular path".

**Question 32**
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A bead traveling on a straight wire is brought to rest at 0.2m by friction. If the mass of the bead is 0.01kg and the coefficient of friction between the bead and the wire is 0.1 determine the work done by the friction

**Question 33**
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If an object just begins to slide on a surface inclined at 30o to the horizontal,the coefficient of friction is

**Answer Details**

When an object just begins to slide on a surface inclined at an angle of 30 degrees to the horizontal, the coefficient of friction can be determined using trigonometry. The coefficient of friction is defined as the ratio of the force required to start sliding the object to the normal force (the force perpendicular to the surface). In this case, the force required to start sliding the object is equal to the product of the normal force and the coefficient of friction multiplied by the sine of the angle of inclination. The normal force is equal to the weight of the object multiplied by the cosine of the angle of inclination. Solving this equation with the given angle of inclination and assuming that the object is not accelerating, we get the coefficient of friction to be 1/√3. Therefore, the correct answer is 1/√3.

**Question 34**
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An open pipe closed at one end produces its first fundamental note. If the velocity of sound in air is P and t the length of the pipe, the frequency of the note is

**Answer Details**

When an open pipe is closed at one end, it produces the first fundamental note. The frequency of this note depends on the length of the pipe and the velocity of sound in air. The wavelength of the fundamental note must be four times the length of the pipe. The velocity of sound in air is given as P. Therefore, the frequency of the note is: f = P/4t where t is the length of the pipe. So, the correct option is: v/4t

**Question 35**
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The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectron emitted from a metal surface is 0.34eV. If the work function of the metal surface is 1.83eV,find the stopping potential.

**Answer Details**

The stopping potential is the potential required to stop the most energetic photo-emitted electron. From the relation e Vs = K.E,(max) where e is the electron charge, and Vs is the stopping potential => e x Vs = 0.34eV

∴ Vs = (0.34eV) / e = 0.34V

∴ stopping potential = 0.34V

**Question 36**
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On top of a spiral spring of the force constant 500Nm-1 is placed a mass of 5 x 10-3 kg. If the spring is compressed downwards by a length of 0.02m and then released, calculate the height to which the mass is projected

**Answer Details**

The problem involves calculating the height to which a mass will be projected after being released from a compressed spring. The solution requires the use of conservation of energy principles. When the spring is compressed, it has potential energy stored in it, given by the formula: U = (1/2)kx^2 where U is the potential energy stored in the spring, k is the force constant of the spring, and x is the compression of the spring. In this case, the spring has a force constant of 500 N/m and is compressed by a length of 0.02 m. Therefore, the potential energy stored in the spring is: U = (1/2) * 500 N/m * (0.02 m)^2 = 0.1 J When the spring is released, this potential energy is converted into kinetic energy as the mass moves upwards. The kinetic energy of the mass can be calculated using the formula: K = (1/2)mv^2 where K is the kinetic energy of the mass, m is the mass of the object, and v is its velocity. At the highest point of its trajectory, the mass will have zero velocity and maximum potential energy (due to its height). Therefore, the kinetic energy at this point will be zero. Since energy is conserved, we can equate the initial potential energy of the spring to the potential energy of the mass at the highest point of its trajectory: U = mgh where g is the acceleration due to gravity, and h is the maximum height attained by the mass. Solving for h, we get: h = U / (mg) = 0.1 J / (0.005 kg * 9.81 m/s^2) = 2.04 m Therefore, the height to which the mass is projected is approximately 2 meters.

**Question 37**
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The most suitable cell used for short interval switches in electric bells is a

**Answer Details**

Electric bells require a cell that can deliver a high current for a short interval of time. The Leclanche cell is most suitable for this purpose. It has a simple and reliable construction, with a low internal resistance that allows it to deliver a high current for a short duration. The Daniel cell and nickel-iron accumulator have a higher internal resistance, making them unsuitable for short interval switches. The lead-acid accumulator is a rechargeable battery, and its large size and high cost make it unsuitable for use in small devices like electric bells. Therefore, the most suitable cell for short interval switches in electric bells is the Leclanche cell.

**Question 38**
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A positive charged rod X is brought near as uncharged metal sphere Y and is then touched by a finger with X still in place. When the finger is removed, the result is that y has

**Question 39**
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In the calibration of an ammeter using faraday's laws of electrolysis, the ammeter reading is kept constant at 1.2A. If 0.990g of copper is deposited in 40 minutes , the correction to be applied to the ammeter is

**Answer Details**

In the calibration of an ammeter using Faraday's laws of electrolysis, the amount of metal deposited at the electrode is directly proportional to the amount of electric charge passed through the cell. Faraday's first law states that the amount of substance produced by the passage of current through an electrolyte is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity passed through it. We can use this law to calculate the correction to be applied to the ammeter. First, we need to calculate the quantity of electricity that passed through the cell. We can use the formula: Q = It where Q is the quantity of electricity, I is the current, and t is the time. In this case, I = 1.2 A and t = 40 minutes = 2400 seconds. Q = (1.2 A) x (2400 s) = 2880 C Next, we need to calculate the amount of copper deposited at the electrode. We can use Faraday's first law, which states that the amount of substance produced is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity passed through it. The constant of proportionality is called the electrochemical equivalent, which is the amount of substance produced by the passage of one coulomb of electricity. For copper, the electrochemical equivalent is 0.000329 g/C. The amount of copper deposited can be calculated using the formula: m = ZQ where m is the mass of copper deposited, Z is the electrochemical equivalent of copper, and Q is the quantity of electricity passed through the cell. In this case, Z = 0.000329 g/C and Q = 2880 C. m = (0.000329 g/C) x (2880 C) = 0.948 g The expected amount of copper deposited is 0.990 g, but we obtained 0.948 g. This means that there was an error in the measurement of the current. To calculate the correction to be applied to the ammeter, we can use the formula: % error = [(expected value - measured value) / expected value] x 100% % error = [(0.990 g - 0.948 g) / 0.990 g] x 100% = 4.24% The % error is positive, which means that the measured value is less than the expected value. To correct for this error, we need to increase the current by the same percentage. The ammeter reading was kept constant at 1.2 A, so we need to calculate 4.24% of 1.2 A. 0.0424 x 1.2 A = 0.051 A Therefore, the correction to be applied to the ammeter is 0.05 A (option C).

**Question 40**
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I It retains its magnetic much longer than steel.

II It is more easily magnetized than steel

III It is more easily demagnetized than steel

IV It produces a stronger magnet than steel

Which combination of the above makes iron preferable to steel in the making of electromagnets?

**Answer Details**

Iron (spft iron) is usually preferred to steel in the making of electromagnets because it is more easily magnetized and equally more easily demagnetized than [II and III]

**Question 41**
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A circuit has an area of 0.4m2 and consists of 50 loops of wire. If the loops are twisted and allowed to rotate at a constant angular velocity of 10 rad s-1 in a uniform magnetic field of 0.4T, the amplitude of the induced voltage is

**Answer Details**

The induced voltage = time rate of change of magnetic flux

i/e E = - | NΔ∅B |

Δt |

But ∅B = Magnetic Flux

= Magnetic Induction (B) x (A)

= 0.4T x 0.4m2

= 0.16 volt second

i/e E = - | NΔ∅B |

Δt |

= 0.16 x 10 x 50

= 80 volts

**Question 42**
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Which of the following pairs of light rays show the widest separation in the spectrum of white light

**Answer Details**

When white light is passed through a prism, it gets dispersed and is split into its constituent colors, creating a spectrum. The colors are arranged in a specific order, with red having the longest wavelength and violet having the shortest wavelength. The amount of separation between any two colors in the spectrum depends on the difference in their wavelengths. So, the pair of light rays that show the widest separation in the spectrum of white light would be those that have the largest difference in their wavelengths. Looking at the options given, we can see that the pair with the largest difference in wavelengths is blue and red, as blue has a shorter wavelength than green, while red has a longer wavelength than orange. Therefore, the answer is blue and red.

**Question 43**
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If 1.2 x 106J of heat energy is given off in 1 sec from a vessel maintained at a temperature gradient of 30Km-1, the surface area of the vessel is

**Answer Details**

Generally in thermal/heat conduction, if 1.2 x 106 J is the heat flow per seconds; 30KM-1 is the temperature gradient of the materials; and 400Wm-1K-1 the thermal conductivity of the material, then we have that:

heat flow per seconds per unit area = thermal conductivity x temp. gradient

i.e = 1.2 x 106Area

= 400 x 30

=> 400 x 30 x Area = 1.2 x 106

∴ Area = 1.2 x 106400 x 30

Area = 100m2 or 1.0 x 102m2

**Question 44**
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When a nucleus is formed by bringing protons and neutrons together, the actual mass of the formed nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of the energy equivalent of this mass difference is the

**Answer Details**

This phenomenon is called nuclear binding energy. When protons and neutrons come together to form a nucleus, some of the mass is converted into energy, which is released in the process. This released energy is known as the binding energy of the nucleus. The energy equivalent of the mass difference is given by Einstein's famous equation E=mc², where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light. Therefore, the mass difference is equal to the binding energy divided by the speed of light squared.

**Question 45**
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The phenomenon where by the water droplets in the atmosphere combines with dust particles in the air to reduce visibility is

**Answer Details**

The phenomenon where water droplets in the atmosphere combine with dust particles in the air to reduce visibility is called "fog." Fog is a type of atmospheric moisture that occurs when the air temperature cools and becomes saturated, causing water droplets to form in the air. The combination of these droplets with dust and other particulate matter can further reduce visibility, leading to hazardous driving and flying conditions.

**Question 46**
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If the distance from a point source of sound is doubled, by what factor does the intensity decrease?

**Answer Details**

When the distance from a point source of sound is doubled, the intensity of the sound wave decreases by a factor of four. The intensity of a sound wave is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source. This means that as the distance from the source increases, the intensity of the sound wave decreases. Doubling the distance means the distance is squared in the denominator, resulting in the intensity decreasing by a factor of four (2^2 = 4). Therefore, the correct option is: 4.00.

**Question 47**
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Thermal equilibrium between two object exist when

**Answer Details**

Thermal equilibrium between two objects exists when their temperatures are equal. This means that the rate of transfer of thermal energy (heat) between the two objects is equal in both directions and there is no net transfer of heat from one object to the other. When two objects are in thermal contact, heat energy will always flow from the object with higher temperature to the object with lower temperature. This will continue until the temperatures of both objects become equal. At this point, thermal equilibrium is established, and there is no net flow of heat energy between the objects. Therefore, the correct option is "the temperature of both objects are equal".

**Question 48**
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Water does not drop through an open umbrella of silk materials unless the inside of the umbrella is touched. This is due to

**Answer Details**

The phenomenon described in the question is due to surface tension. Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that causes it to behave as if it were a thin, elastic film. The molecules at the surface of a liquid experience a net inward force due to the cohesive forces between them, which causes the surface to contract and form a shape with the least surface area. In the case of an open umbrella made of silk material, the surface tension of water prevents it from passing through the small gaps between the threads of the silk. However, when the inside of the umbrella is touched, the surface tension is broken at that point, allowing the water to flow through. Capillarity is the tendency of a liquid to rise in a narrow tube due to the adhesive forces between the liquid and the tube. Osmotic pressure is the pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane. Viscosity is the resistance of a liquid to flow. None of these properties are relevant to the phenomenon described in the question.

**Question 49**
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The length of piece of glass block was measured by means of a vernier calliper as shown above. The length of the glass block is

**Answer Details**

From the image provided, we can see that the zero error on the vernier calliper is 0.03 cm. The main scale reading that aligns with the zero mark on the vernier scale is 1.6 cm, and the vernier scale has an additional 0.04 cm of length that aligns with a main scale marking. Adding the main scale reading to the vernier scale reading (1.6 cm + 0.04 cm), we get a total length of 1.64 cm. Therefore, the length of the glass block is 1.64 cm.

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